Description    EPICAUTA sp. beetles in alfalfa hay or hay products can cause an acute and often fatal poisoning; common in areas where the beetles are endemic. Cantharidin is the toxic agent.
Species   Equine
Signs   Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Anorexia, Arrhythmia, Ataxia, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Cold skin, Colic, Congestion oral mucous membranes, Cyanosis, Decreased borborygmi, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Disoriented, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dysphagia, Dyspnea, Dysuria, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Fever, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Head pressing, Hematuria, Hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of urination, Increased respiratory rate, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Prolonged capillary refill time, Red or brown urine, Reluctant to move, Seizures or syncope, Sudden death, Sweating, Tachycardia, Tenesmus, Tongue ulcers, vesicles, Trembling, Tremor
References   Schumacher J. Bloody urine the list of differential diagnoses lengthens, but diagnostics remain the same. Equine Vet Educ 2017;Oct [Web Reference]
Al-Dissi A. Toxicology for the Equine Practitioner. Vet Clin N A Eq Pract 2015;31:269 [Web Reference]
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