Description    DELPHINIUM spp., larkspur, causes poisoning in western North America and the Swiss Alps. Succulent prebloom plants and seeds are most toxic and poisonings generally occur in the spring and fall when plants are in this stage of their life cycle.
Species   Bovine, Equine, Ovine
Signs   Abdominal distention, Arrhythmia, Ataxia, Bloat in ruminants, Colic, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Diarrhea, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Exercise intolerance, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Hyperesthesia, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of swallowing, Increased frequency of urination, Increased respiratory rate, Seizures or syncope, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Tetraparesis, Trembling, Tremor, Vomiting or regurgitation
References   Welch KD. Administering multiple doses of a non N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-containing tall larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) to cattle. Toxicon 2017;128:46 [Web Reference]
Niles GA. Toxicoses of the Ruminant Nervous System. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2017;33:111 [Web Reference]
Dawson DR. Toxins and Adverse Drug Reactions Affecting the Equine Nervous System. Vet Clin N A Eq Pract 2011;27:507 [Web Reference]
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