Description    Botulism is caused by ingestion of the potent toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The diagnosis is difficult to confirm. Herd outbreaks of botulism have been reported.
Species   Bovine, Caprine, Ovine
Signs   Abdominal distention, Abnormal anal, perineal, tail reflexes, Abnormal forelimb reflexes, Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Abnormal pupillary response to light, Agalactia, Anorexia, Ataxia, Bloat in ruminants, Bradycardia, Cold skin, Coma, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Decreased or absent menace response but not blind, Difficulty in prehending or chewing food, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dysphagia, Dyspnea, Dysuria, Enlarged, distended, urinary bladder, Excessive salivation, Exercise intolerance, Forelimb weakness, Generalized weakness, Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Mucous, mucoid stools, feces, Muscle hypotonia, Mydriasis, Palpable dilated bowel, Paraparesis, Photophobia, Ptosis, Reluctant to move, Rumen hypomotility or atony, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Tail weakness, Tenesmus, Tetraparesis, Tongue protrusion, Tongue weakness, Trembling, Tremor, Urinary incontinence, Weakness of one hindlimb
References   Rossi A. Temporal evolution of anti-Clostridium antibody responses in sheep after vaccination with polyvalent clostridial vaccines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2018;202:46 [Web Reference]
Driehuis F. Silage review: Animal and human health risks from silage. J Dairy Sci 2018;101:4093 [Web Reference]
Souillard R. A bovine botulism outbreak associated with a suspected cross-contamination from a poultry farm. Vet Microbiol 2017;208:212 [Web Reference]
Niles GA. Toxicoses of the Ruminant Nervous System. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2017;33:111 [Web Reference]
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