Description    An ascending paralysis can be caused by many tick species and genera. Only a few ticks are required to induce Tick Paralysis, which is due to a toxin that causes a presynaptic disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Clinical signs, which can include asymmetrical focal neurological deficits in some animals, regress a few hours to weeks following tick removal.
Species   Bovine, Canine, Equine, Feline, Caprine, Ovine, Porcine
Signs   Abnormal anal, perineal, tail reflexes, Abnormal forelimb reflexes, Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, Abnormal panniculus reflex, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Abnormal pupillary response to light, Anisocoria, Anorexia, Ataxia, Bradycardia, Change in voice, Coughing, Cyanosis, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Decreased or absent menace response but not blind, Decreased respiratory rate, Dehydration, Difficulty in prehending or chewing food, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dysphagia, Dyspnea, Enlarged, distended, urinary bladder, Enophthalmos, Excessive salivation, Fever, Forelimb weakness, Gagging, retching, Generalized weakness, Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, Hyperesthesia, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Ingesta in nasal passage, Miosis, Muscle hypotonia, Mydriasis, Oliguria or anuria, Paraparesis, Prolapsed third eyelid, Ptosis, Rough hair coat, Sinus arrest, Sinus arrhythmia, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Tail weakness, Tetraparesis, Tongue weakness, Urinary incontinence, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weakness of one hindlimb
References   Whitfield Z. Delineation of an endemic tick paralysis zone in southeastern Australia. Vet Parasitol 2017;247:42 [Web Reference]
Sherman R. Aspiration Pneumonia in the Dog: A Review. Topics Companion Anim Med 2017;32:1 [Web Reference]
Nicolson G. NT-proBNP and cardiac troponin I concentrations in dogs with tick paralysis caused by Ixodes holocyclus. Aust Vet J 2016;94:274 [Web Reference]
Ruppin M. Retrospective study of 103 presumed cases of tick (Ixodes holocyclus) envenomation in the horse. Aust Vet J 2012;90:175 [Web Reference]
Tee S. Suspected tick paralysis (Ixodes holocyclus) in a Miniature Horse. Aust Vet J 2012;90:181 [Web Reference]
Nagy DW. PARELAPHOSTRONGYLUS TENUIS and other parasitic diseases of the ruminant nervous system. Vet Clin N A Food Anim Pract 2004;20:393 [Web Reference]
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