VITAMIN D, CHOLECALCIFEROL, TOXICITY IN DOGS AND CATS
 
Description    Rodenticides and other products can contain vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Toxicities have occurred in dogs and cats, with signs in cats frequently not as severe as those in dogs. There is hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia; death is usually due to renal failure. The drugs calcipotriol, calcipotriene, and tacalcitol have caused vitamin D toxicity in dogs and oversupplementation with vitamin D can be toxic.
 
Species   Canine, Feline
 
Signs   Abnormal forelimb reflexes, Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, Anorexia, Arrhythmia, Ataxia, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Bradycardia, Colic, Coma, Congestion oral mucous membranes, Coughing, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Decreased borborygmi, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Hematemesis, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Oliguria or anuria, Pain on external abdominal pressure, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Prolonged capillary refill time, Seizures or syncope, Trembling, Tremor, Ventricular fibrillation, flutter, Ventricular premature beat, Vomiting or regurgitation
 
References   de Brito Galv„o JF. Update on Feline Ionized Hypercalcemia. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2017;47:273 [Web Reference]
Perry BH. Reduction of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with intravenous lipid emulsion in a dog. Can Vet J 2016;57:1284 [Web Reference]
Nakamura K. Hypercalcemia in a Dog with Chronic Ingestion of Maxacalcitol Ointment. JAAHA 2016;52:256 [Web Reference]
Finch NC. Hypercalcaemia in cats: The complexities of calcium regulation and associated clinical challenges. J Fel Med Surg 2016;18:387 [Web Reference]
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