ANTICOAGULANT, RODENTICIDE, TOXICITY
 
Description    Anticoagulatns such as warfarin, diphacinone, chlorophacinone, brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difethialone, and difenacoum can cause bleeding disorders in any animal but are most common in dogs, cats and pigs that eat rat poison. These agents interfere with activation of vitamin K dependent clotting factors, leading to hemorrhage throughout the body. There is a latent period of from 12-to-24 hours between ingestion and the development of signs. Anticoagulants have been used in the treatment of some diseases; if given to excess there can be severe bleeding problems and a prolonged prothrombin time.
 
Species   Bovine, Canine, Equine, Feline, Caprine, Ovine, Porcine
 
Signs   Abdominal distention, Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, Abnormal upper airway breathing sounds, Agalactia, Anorexia, Ataxia, Back swelling, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Colic, Coma, Coughing, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dryness oral mucosa, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Epistaxis, Excessive salivation, Exophthalmos, Fever, Forelimb lameness, Forelimb swelling, Gagging, retching, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, Hematemesis, Hematuria, Hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria, Hemoptysis coughing up blood, Hemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, Hindlimb lameness, Hindlimb swelling, Hyphema, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Increased strength of pulse, Laryngeal, tracheal, pharyngeal swelling, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Muffled, decreased, heart sounds, Neck swelling, Nystagmus, Ocular pain, Oral cavity, tongue swelling, Pain on external abdominal pressure, Pale, Petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura, Prolonged capillary refill time, Red or brown urine, Reluctant to move, Retinal hemorrhage, Seizures or syncope, Sudden death, Swelling mass, vulva, clitoris, Swelling skin or subcutaneous, Swelling, mass external abdomen, Tachycardia, Tenesmus, Thoracic swelling, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weak pulse, Weight loss
 
References   Nagy AL. Long-established and emerging pesticide poisoning in horses. Equine Vet Educ 2018;Jan [Web Reference]
Seljetun KO. Quantitative method for analysis of six anticoagulant rodenticides in faeces, applied in a case with repeated samples from a dog. Acta Vet Scand 2018;60:3 [Web Reference]
Fitzgerald SD. An apparent case of brodifacoum toxicosis in a whelping dog. J Vet Diagn Invest 2018;30:169 [Web Reference]
Parton KH. Recovery of brodifacoum in vomitus following induction of emesis in dogs that had ingested rodenticide bait. N Z Vet J 2018;66:41 [Web Reference]
Vangrinsven E. Thymic haemorrhage due to ingestion of human anticoagulant medication in a puppy. Vet Rec Case Reports 2017;5:e000552 [Web Reference]
Lawson C. Upper Airway Obstruction Secondary to Anticoagulant Rodenticide Toxicosis in Five Dogs. JAAHA 2017;53:236 [Web Reference]
Duncanson GR. Backyard pigs: medicine problems-part 2. Companion Anim 2013;18:348 [Web Reference]
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