WATER INTOXICATION, TOXICITY, SALT POISONING, OF RUMINANTS
 
Description    Intoxication caused by rapid ingestion of water is common in calves, occurs occasionally in sheep (usually after a period of water deprivation) and can affect goat kids fed water from a nipple bottle. In most cases red urine caused by hemolysis is seen without other clinical signs, but life-threatening signs can be seen in severely affected animals. Salt Poisoning occurs when excessive intake of salt is accompanied by restricted access to water.
 
Species   Bovine, Caprine, Ovine
 
Signs   Abdominal distention, Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Agalactia, Anorexia, Arrhythmia, Ataxia, Blindness, Bloat in ruminants, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Circling, Colic, Coma, Constant or increased vocalization, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Disoriented, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Fever, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Head pressing, Hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria, Hemoptysis coughing up blood, Hyperesthesia, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of urination, Increased respiratory rate, Ingesta in nasal passage, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Miosis, Mucous, mucoid stools, feces, Nystagmus, Oliguria or anuria, Opisthotonus, Pale, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Propulsion, Red or brown urine, Reluctant to move, Rumen hypomotility or atony, Seizures or syncope, Stiffness or extended neck, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Tetraparesis, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weight loss
 
References   Niles GA. Toxicoses of the Ruminant Nervous System. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2017;33:111 [Web Reference]
Middleton JR. Cerebral Disorders of the Adult Ruminant. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2017;33:43 [Web Reference]
Dore V. Cerebral Disorders of Calves. Food Animal Neurology. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2017;33:27 [Web Reference]
Cowan V. Characterizing 1341 cases of veterinary toxicoses confirmed in western Canada: A 16-year retrospective study. Can Vet J 2016;57:53 [Web Reference]
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