AMMONIA, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, IRRITANT GAS TOXICITY IN LARGE ANIMALS
 
Description    Ammonia due to manure buildup in confined housing is probably the most common toxic air pollutant. The main signs are due to ocular and respiratory irritation. Cattle and pigs have developed respiratory distress after exposure to nitrogen dioxide from silos being filled.
 
Species   Bovine, Equine, Caprine, Ovine, Porcine
 
Signs   Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, Agalactia, Anorexia, Chemosis, Conjunctival, scleral, redness, Coughing, Cyanosis, Dullness, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Fever, Generalized weakness, Increased respiratory rate, Lack of growth or weight gain, Lacrimation, Mucoid nasal discharge, Photophobia, Purulent nasal discharge, Sneezing, Stiffness or extended neck, Subcutaneous crepitation, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Weight loss
 
References   Driehuis F. Silage review: Animal and human health risks from silage. J Dairy Sci 2018;101:4093 [Web Reference]
Copyright © 2018 Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine