AMMONIA, NITROGEN DIOXIDE, IRRITANT GAS TOXICITY IN LARGE ANIMALS
 
Description    Ammonia due to manure buildup in confined housing is probably the most common toxic air pollutant. The main signs are due to ocular and respiratory irritation. Cattle and pigs have developed respiratory distress after exposure to nitrogen dioxide from silos being filled.
 
Species   Bovine, Equine, Caprine, Ovine, Porcine
 
Signs   Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, Agalactia, Anorexia, Chemosis, Conjunctival, scleral, redness, Coughing, Cyanosis, Dullness, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Fever, Generalized weakness, Increased respiratory rate, Lack of growth or weight gain, Lacrimation, Mucoid nasal discharge, Photophobia, Purulent nasal discharge, Sneezing, Stiffness or extended neck, Subcutaneous crepitation, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Weight loss
 
References   Otter A. Outbreaks of bovine interstitial pneumonia. Vet Rec 2016;179:605 [Web Reference]
Murphy T. Pig-shed air polluted by α-haemolytic cocci and ammonia causes subclinical disease and production losses. Vet Rec 2012;171:123 [Web Reference]
Phillips CJC. Physiological and behavioral responses of sheep to gaseous ammonia. J Anim Sci 2012;90:1562 [Web Reference]
Phillips CJC. The physiological and behavioral responses of steers to gaseous ammonia in simulated long-distance transport by ship. J Anim Sci 2010;88:3579 [Web Reference]
Fleming K. Evaluation of Factors Influencing the Generation of Ammonia in Different Bedding Materials Used for Horse Keeping. J Eq Vet Sci 2008;28:223 [Web Reference]
McLoughlin MF. Nitrogen dioxide (silo gas) poisoning in pigs. Vet Rec 1985;116:119
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