NITRATE, NITRITE, POISONING IN RUMINANTS
 
Description    Although nitrate is relatively nontoxic ruminants convert it into the more toxic nitrite, leading to a sometimes fatal methemaglobinemia. High-nitrate water, hay, corn fodder grown during drought, rape, kale, turnips, beets, and mangels are common sources. Brown blood is a characteristic sign. Lambs grazing on pastures recently topdressed with nitrogenous fertilizers can develop signs of sometimes-fatal gastrointestinal disease.
 
Species   Bovine, Caprine, Ovine
 
Signs   Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abortion or weak newborns, Agalactia, Anorexia, Ataxia, Brown color, mucous membranes, Cold skin, Colic, Coma, Cyanosis, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Exercise intolerance, Female infertility, Generalized weakness, Hyperesthesia, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of urination, Increased respiratory rate, Lack of growth or weight gain, Opisthotonus, Pain on external abdominal pressure, Paraparesis, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Seizures or syncope, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Tetraparesis, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Urinary incontinence, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weak pulse, Weight loss
 
References   Driehuis F. Silage review: Animal and human health risks from silage. J Dairy Sci 2018;101:4093 [Web Reference]
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