Description    Oleander is a flowering evergreen shrub of the APOCYNACEAE family found in many parts of the world that is toxic to ruminants and horses. Cumulative toxicity can be caused by all parts of the plant, fresh or dried. Cardiac, gastrointestinal, and renal signs predominate.
Species   Bovine, Equine, Caprine, Ovine
Signs   Abdominal distention, Agalactia, Anorexia, Arrhythmia, Ataxia, Atrial fibrillation, Blindness, Bloat in ruminants, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Bradycardia, Bundle branch block, Cold skin, Colic, Coma, Congestion oral mucous membranes, Constant or increased vocalization, Cyanosis, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Decreased borborygmi, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dryness oral mucosa, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Fever, First degree atrioventricular heart block, Generalized weakness, Grinding teeth, Heart murmur, Hyperesthesia, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased borborygmi, Increased frequency of urination, Ingesta in nasal passage, Jugular pulse, Lacrimation, Mucous, mucoid stools, feces, Muffled, decreased, heart sounds, Mydriasis, Pale, Peripheral venous distention, Polyuria, Prolonged capillary refill time, Rumen hypomotility or atony, Second degree atrioventricular heart block, Seizures or syncope, Sinus arrest, Sinus arrhythmia, Sinus tachycardia, Sudden death, Sweating, Tachycardia, Third degree, complete, atrioventricular heart block, Trembling, Tremor, Ventricular fibrillation, flutter, Ventricular premature beat, Ventricular tachycardia, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weak pulse
References   Butler J. Fatal Oleander Toxicosis in Two Miniature Horses. JAAHA 2016;52:398 [Web Reference]
Caloni F. Plants poisonous to horses in Europe. Eq Vet Educ 2015;27:269 [Web Reference]
Cortinovis C. Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe. Vet J 2013;197:163 [Web Reference]
Nicholson SS. Southeastern Plants Toxic to Ruminants. Vet Clin N A Food Anim Pract 2011;27:447 [Web Reference]
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