Description    Ehrlichiosis in dogs is caused by the tick-borne bacteria EHRLICHIA CANIS, E. CHAFFEENSIS, and/or E. EWINGII. The obligate-intracellular Gram-negative bacterium EHRLICHIA CANIS, the cause of Monocytic Ehrlichiosis, has a tropism for monocytes and macrophages. It is transmitted by the brown dog tick RHIPICEPHALUS SANGUINEUS. E. CANIS can cause a hemorrhagic disease with platelet dysfunction but most cases present with nonspecific signs such as depression and weight loss. Recovery is accompanied by latent infection. There is often thrombocytopenia, anemia (mainly normocytic normochromic) and lymphopenia. This is an important disease in the southern U.S. Monoclonal gammopathy can occur and ehrlichiosis should be considered in cases with such a gammopathy and no other disease. E. CHAFFEENSIS and E. EWINGII produce mild disease in dogs.
Species   Canine
Signs   Abnormal breath odor, Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Abnormal pupillary response to light, Abnormal retinal pigmentation, Abnormal retinal reflectivity, Abnormal size of retinal vessels, Abortion or weak newborns, Alopecia, Anorexia, Arrhythmia, Ascites, Ataxia, Back pain, Blepharospasm, Blindness, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Cataract, Chemosis, Conjunctival, scleral, injection, Conjunctival, scleral, redness, Corneal edema, opacity, Corneal ulcer, Coughing, Cyanosis, Decreased tearing, lacrimation, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Epistaxis, Exercise intolerance, Female infertility, Fever, Forefoot swelling, Forelimb lameness, Forelimb pain, Forelimb swelling, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Head tilt, Heart murmur, Hematemesis, Hematuria, Hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria, Hemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, Hepatosplenomegaly, Hindfoot swelling, Hindlimb lameness, Hindlimb pain, Hindlimb swelling, Hyperesthesia, Hyphema, Hypopyon, lipid, or fibrin, flare, of anterior chamber, Hypothermia, Icterus, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Internal abdominal mass, Lack of libido or erection, Lacrimation, Lens luxation, Lymphadenopathy, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Miosis, Mucoid nasal discharge, Mydriasis, Nystagmus, Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, Pain on external abdominal pressure, Pain, neck, cervical, throat, Pale, Papilledema, Paraparesis, Petechiae or ecchymoses, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Proteinuria, Pulse deficiency, Purulent discharge from eye, Purulent nasal discharge, Red or brown urine, Reluctant to move, Retinal detachment, Retinal hemorrhage, Seizures or syncope, Skin edema, Sneezing, Swelling skin or subcutaneous, Tachycardia, Tetraparesis, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weight loss
References   Stillman BA et al. Performance of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia ewingii and Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2014;245:80-86 [Web Reference]
Davoust B et al. Usefulness of a rapid immuno-migration test for the detection of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis in Africa. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2014;37:3137 [Web Reference]
Qurollo BA et al. Infection with Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. in a Dog with Atypical Lymphocytes and Clonal T-Cell Expansion. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2013;27:12511255 [Web Reference]
Wilson HE et al. Ehrlichia canis infection in a dog with no history of travel outside the United Kingdom. Journal of Small Animal Practice 2013;54:425427 [Web Reference]
Allison RW, Little SE. Diagnosis of rickettsial diseases in dogs and cats. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 2013;42:127144. [Web Reference]
Kamani J et al. First detection and molecular characterization of Ehrlichia canis from dogs in Nigeria. Research in Veterinary Science 2013;94:2732 [Web Reference]
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