ETHYLENE GLYCOL, ANTIFREEZE, TOXICITY IN DOGS AND CATS
 
Description    Ethylene glycol is a sweet, widely-available liquid commonly found in antifreeze. Acute toxicity is characterized by gastrointestinal and central nervous system disorders. Subsequent renal failure can lead to uremia and death. There are associated hyperosmolality and metabolic acidosis, with oxalate crystals often found in urine.
 
Species   Canine, Feline
 
Signs   Abnormal breath odor, Abnormal forelimb reflexes, Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Anorexia, Ataxia, Bradycardia, Cold skin, Colic, Coma, Congestion oral mucous membranes, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Disoriented, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Generalized weakness, Hematuria, Hyperesthesia, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of urination, Increased respiratory rate, Miosis, Nystagmus, Oliguria or anuria, Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, Pain on external abdominal pressure, Pain, kidney, ureters, on palpation, Palpable enlarged kidney , Paraparesis, Pharyngeal ulcers, vesicles, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Red or brown urine, Seizures or syncope, Tachycardia, Tongue ulcers, vesicles, Trembling, Tremor, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weak pulse
 
References   Bates N. Common questions in veterinary toxicology. JSAP 2015;56:298 [Web Reference]
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