ETHYLENE, PROPYLENE, GLYCOL TOXICITY IN DOGS AND CATS, ANTIFREEZE
 
Description    Ethylene glycol is a sweet, widely-available liquid commonly found in antifreeze. Acute toxicity is characterized by gastrointestinal and central nervous system disorders. Subsequent renal failure can lead to uremia and death. There are associated hyperosmolality and metabolic acidosis, with oxalate crystals often found in urine. A dog had Propylene Glycol Toxicity, presumably due to ingestion. This can initially resemble Ethylene Glycol Toxicity and commercially-available in-clinic tests might not distinguish the two toxic agents.
 
Species   Canine, Feline
 
Signs   Abnormal breath odor, Abnormal forelimb reflexes, Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Anorexia, Ataxia, Blindness, Bradycardia, Cold skin, Colic, Coma, Congestion oral mucous membranes, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Disoriented, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Generalized weakness, Hematuria, Hyperesthesia, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of urination, Increased respiratory rate, Miosis, Nystagmus, Oliguria or anuria, Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, Pain on external abdominal pressure, Pain, kidney, ureters, on palpation, Palpable enlarged kidney , Paraparesis, Pharyngeal ulcers, vesicles, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Red or brown urine, Seizures or syncope, Tachycardia, Tetraparesis, Tongue ulcers, vesicles, Trembling, Tremor, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weak pulse
 
References   Calzetta L. Geographical characteristics influencing the risk of poisoning in pet dogs: Results of a large population-based epidemiological study in Italy. Vet J 2018;Apr [Web Reference]
Bates N. Common questions in veterinary toxicology. JSAP 2015;56:298 [Web Reference]
Claus MA. Propylene glycol intoxication in a dog. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2011;21:679 [Web Reference]
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