CHOCOLATE, COCOA, CACAO, CAFFEINE, METHYLXANTHINE, THEOBROMINE, THEOPHYLLINE, TOXICITY
 
Description    Methylxanthines such as caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline, are found in a variety of foods, beverages, medications including 'herbal' medications, and other products including chocolate, coffee, tea, guarana, and cacao bean shells.
 
Species   Canine
 
Signs   Abdominal distention, Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Anorexia, Arrhythmia, Ataxia, Bradycardia, Coma, Congestion oral mucous membranes, Cyanosis, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excitement, Fever, Generalized weakness, Hyperesthesia, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of urination, Increased respiratory rate, Increased strength of pulse, Mydriasis, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Propulsion, Red or brown urine, Seizures or syncope, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Trembling, Tremor, Urinary incontinence, Ventricular premature beat, Vomiting or regurgitation
 
References   Noble P-JM. Heightened risk of canine chocolate exposure at Christmas and Easter. Vet Rec 2017;181:684 [Web Reference]
MacCallum R. Raspberry ketone ingestion in dogs. Vet Rec 2017;180:23 [Web Reference]
Cortinovis C. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats. Front Vet Sci 2016;Mar [Web Reference]
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