Description    The major sources of toxic fluorides in domestic animals are releases into the atmosphere from industrial operations that settle on vegetation. Pitting and mottling of the permanent teeth and roughening of the periosteal surface are the major signs of Chronic Fluorosis. Bony swellings start on the limbs and also affect the mandible and ribs. Although Chronic Fluorosis is more common, Acute Fluoride Toxicity has been reported, with signs involving primarily the renal, gastrointestinal, nervous, and cardiovascular systems.
Species   Bovine, Equine, Caprine, Ovine, Porcine
Signs   Abnormal tooth color, Agalactia, Anorexia, Ataxia, Cavities of teeth, Diarrhea, Difficulty in prehending or chewing food, Dryness of skin or hair, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dysphagia, Dyspnea, Excessive or irregular tooth wear, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Fecal incontinence, Forelimb lameness, Forelimb pain, Forelimb swelling, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, Hindlimb lameness, Hindlimb pain, Hindlimb swelling, Hyperkeratosis, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Kyphosis, Lack of growth or weight gain, Rough hair coat, Rumen hypomotility or atony, Seizures or syncope, Sudden death, Tetraparesis, Thoracic swelling, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Urinary incontinence, Weight loss
References   Livesey C. Diagnosis and investigation of fluorosis in livestock and horses. In Pract 2011;33:454 [Web Reference]
Poppenga RH. Commercial and Industrial Chemical Hazards for Ruminants. Vet Clin N A Food Anim Pract 2011;27:373 [Web Reference]
Morgan SE. Water Quality for Cattle. Vet Clin N A Food Anim Pract 2011;27:285 [Web Reference]
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