CLOSANTEL, RAFOXANIDE, HALOGENATED SALICYLANILIDE, TOXICITY IN SHEEP AND GOATS
 
Description    The halogenated salicylanilide anthelmintics closantel and rafoxanide can be toxic in sheep and goats.
 
Species   Caprine, Ovine
 
Signs   Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Abnormal pupillary response to light, Anorexia, Ataxia, Blindness, Circling, Colic, Coughing, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Fever, Generalized weakness, Grinding teeth, Head pressing, Head tilt, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Mydriasis, Nystagmus, Opisthotonus, Paraparesis, Seizures or syncope, Stiffness or extended neck, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Tetraparesis, Torticollis, Trembling, Tremor
 
References   Giles L. Ruminant neurological disease: a retrospective cohort study. Vet Rec 2017;181:372 [Web Reference]
Westers T. Efficacy of closantel against ivermectin- and fenbendazole-resistant Haemonchus sp. in sheep in Ontario, Canada. Vet Parasitol 2016;228:30 [Web Reference]
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