Description    Botulism is caused by the ingestion of exotoxins produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. Presents as a progressive, symmetric, generalized, lower motor neuron dysfunction affecting both cranial and spinal nerves. Ulcerative keratitis and conjunctivitis might develop secondarily.
Species   Canine, Feline
Signs   Abnormal anal, perineal, tail reflexes, Abnormal forelimb reflexes, Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Abnormal pupillary response to light, Anorexia, Bradycardia, Bunny hopping, Change in voice, Chemosis, Cold skin, Conjunctival, scleral, injection, Conjunctival, scleral, redness, Corneal ulcer, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Decreased respiratory rate, Difficulty in prehending or chewing food, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dysphagia, Dyspnea, Enlarged, distended, urinary bladder, Excessive salivation, Generalized weakness, Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Internal abdominal mass, Muscle hypotonia, Mydriasis, Oliguria or anuria, Paraparesis, Tetraparesis, Vomiting or regurgitation
References   Sherman R. Aspiration Pneumonia in the Dog: A Review. Topics Companion Anim Med 2017;32:1 [Web Reference]
Lamoureux A. A case of type B botulism in a pregnant bitch. JSAP 2015;56:348 [Web Reference]
Anor S. Acute Lower Motor Neuron Tetraparesis. Vet Clin N A Small Anim Pract 2014;44:1201 [Web Reference]
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