Description    Primary Hypoadrenocorticism results from adrenal cortical failure leading to deficiency of mineralocorticoids and/or glucocorticoids. An autoimmune pathogenesis is suspected and there is a genetic basis in dogs although the mode of inheritance is undetermined. Typically affects young to middle aged dogs, females more than males. Other causes include: destruction of the adrenal cortex by neoplasia; infarcts; inflitrative disease such as tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, amyloidosis; or administration of treatments for hyperadrenocorticism. Secondary Hypoadrenocorticism due to insufficient ACTH stimulation results from hypothalamic or pituitary lesions or prolonged exogenous glucocorticoid administration. Clinical signs can wax and wane. Acute severe disease (adrenal crisis) might be due to adrenal infarction or termination of the chronic phase. Concurrent renal failure is common. Megaesophagus might occur.
Species   Canine
Signs   Alopecia, Anorexia, Ascites, Ataxia, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Bradycardia, Cold skin, Colic, Coma, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Disoriented, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Exercise intolerance, Fever, Forelimb spasms, Generalized weakness, Hematemesis, Hindlimb lameness, Hindlimb spasms, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Pain on external abdominal pressure, Pale, Paraparesis, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Prolonged capillary refill time, Reluctant to move, Rough hair coat, Seizures or syncope, Skin edema, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Tetraparesis, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Urinary incontinence, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weak pulse, Weight loss
References   Gershwin LJ. Current and Newly Emerging Autoimmune Diseases. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2018;48:323 [Web Reference]
Decôme M. Prevalence and clinical features of hypoadrenocorticism in Great Pyrenees dogs in a referred population: 11 cases. Can Vet J 2017;58:1093 [Web Reference]
Jaffey JA. Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate Duration of Action and Individualized Dosing Intervals in Dogs with Primary Hypoadrenocorticism. J Vet Intern Med 2017;31:1649 [Web Reference]
Borin-Crivellenti S. Use of a combination of routine hematologic and biochemical test results in a logistic regression model as a diagnostic aid for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. AJVR 2017;78:1171 [Web Reference]
Wakayama JA. A retrospective study of dogs with atypical hypoadrenocorticism: a diagnostic cut-off or continuum? JSAP 2017;58:365 [Web Reference]
Buckley ME. Glucocorticoid-deficient hypoadrenocorticism secondary to intravascular lymphoma in the adrenal glands of a dog. Aust Vet J 2017;95:64 [Web Reference]
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