Description    Histiocytic Sarcoma is a rare neoplasm that arises from the antigen-presenting dendritic cell. There can be localized or disseminated-multi-organ involvement; the term Malignant Histiocytosis refers to the disseminated form. Bernese Mountain Dogs are at increased risk but this tumor has been identified in a variety of breeds. Affected dogs have been as young as 3-years of age. Uncommon in cats.
Species   Canine, Feline
Signs   Abdominal distention, Abnormal anal, perineal, tail reflexes, Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal forelimb reflexes, Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, Abnormal panniculus reflex, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Abnormal pupillary response to light, Abnormal upper airway breathing sounds, Alopecia, Anorexia, Ascites, Ataxia, Back pain, Back swelling, Blepharospasm, Blindness, Buphthalmia, Chemosis, Circling, Coma, Conjunctival, scleral, injection, Conjunctival, scleral, redness, Corneal edema, opacity, Corneal neovascularization, Corneal ulcer, Coughing, Decreased, muffled, lung sounds, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Enlarged, distended, urinary bladder, Epistaxis, Exophthalmos, Fecal incontinence, Fever, Forefoot swelling, Forelimb lameness, Forelimb swelling, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Head tilt, Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, Head, face, neck, tongue hypoesthesia, Hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria, Hepatosplenomegaly, Hindfoot pain, Hindfoot swelling, Hindlimb lameness, Hindlimb pain, Hindlimb swelling, Hyphema, Hypopyon, lipid, or fibrin, flare, of anterior chamber, Icterus, Increased respiratory rate, Internal abdominal mass, Intraocular mass, Loose teeth, Lymphadenopathy, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Miosis, Moist skin, hair or feathers, Mucoid nasal discharge, Mydriasis, Neck swelling, Nystagmus, Ocular pain, Oral cavity, tongue swelling, Orbital, periorbital, periocular, conjunctival swelling, Pale, Paraparesis, Petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Purulent nasal discharge, Red or brown urine, Retinal detachment, Rough hair coat, Seizures or syncope, Skin crusts, Skin edema, Skin erythema, Skin fistula, Skin hypopigmentation, Skin pain, Skin papules, Skin plaque, Skin pustules, Skin scales, Skin ulcer, Sneezing, Swelling skin or subcutaneous, Swelling, mass external abdomen, Synechia, Tachycardia, Tail weakness, Tetraparesis, Thoracic swelling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Urinary incontinence, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weight loss
References   Mason SL. Epirubicin in the treatment of canine histiocytic sarcoma: sequential, alternating and rescue chemotherapy. Vet Compar Oncol 2018;Apr [Web Reference]
Manor EK. Prior joint disease is associated with increased risk of periarticular histiocytic sarcoma in dogs. Vet Compar Oncol 2018;Apr [Web Reference]
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Sherman AB. Histiocytic chorioretinitis in a dog. Vet Ophthalmol 2018;21:88 [Web Reference]
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Lenz JA. Histiocytic sarcoma in 14 miniature schnauzers a new breed predisposition? JSAP 2017;58:461 [Web Reference]
Bisson J. Mediastinal histiocytic sarcoma with abdominal metastasis in a Somali cat. Vet Rec Case Reports 2017;5:e000405 [Web Reference]
Finlay J. Evaluation of the risks of chemotherapy in dogs with thrombocytopenia. Vet Comp Oncol 2017;15:151 [Web Reference]
Treggiari E. Clinical outcome, PDGFRβ and KIT expression in feline histiocytic disorders: a multicentre study. Vet Comp Oncol 2017;15:65 [Web Reference]
Moore A. Chemotherapy for dogs with lymph node metastasis from histiocytic sarcomas. Aust Vet J 2017;95:37 [Web Reference]
Johnson MC. Cytology of Skin Neoplasms. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2017; 2017;47:85 [Web Reference]
Barger AM. Cytology of Bone. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2017;47:71 [Web Reference]
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