CYANOGENIC PLANT POISONING, CYANIDE TOXICITY, IN LARGE ANIMALS
 
Description    Several plants such as PRUNUS spp. contain cyanogen glycosides. Hydrogen cyanide can cause sudden death in cattle and sheep. The problem is worse following wilting, drought or frost. The blood and mucous membranes in affected animals are bright red. Cyanide toxicosis caused by direct ingestion of the poison can also occur.
 
Species   Bovine, Equine, Caprine, Ovine
 
Signs   Abdominal distention, Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Agalactia, Anorexia, Arrhythmia, Ataxia, Bloat in ruminants, Bradycardia, Circling, Coma, Congestion oral mucous membranes, Cyanosis, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Generalized weakness, Grinding teeth, Hemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, Hyperesthesia, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Mydriasis, Nystagmus, Opisthotonus, Petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura, Seizures or syncope, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Tenesmus, Trembling, Tremor, Vomiting or regurgitation
 
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Cortinovis C. Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe. The Vet J 2013;197:163 [Web Reference]
Ensley S. Ruminant Toxicology Diagnostics. Vet Clin N A Food Anim Pract 2012;28:557 [Web Reference]
Finnie J. Neurological diseases of ruminant livestock in Australia. II: toxic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Aust Vet J 2011;89:247 [Web Reference]
Bischoff K. Toxic Plants of the Northeastern United States. Vet Clin N A Food Anim Pract 2011;27:459 [Web Reference]
Nicholson SS. Southeastern Plants Toxic to Ruminants. Vet Clin N A Food Anim Pract 2011;27:447 [Web Reference]
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