ESSENTIAL, 'HERBAL', OIL POISONING
 
Description    Essential Oils, volatile oils extracted from plants, that are components of 'herbal' medicines such as flea or tick treatments or other products can be toxic in dogs and/or cats. Melaleuca (Tea Tree) Oil, Neem (Margosa) Oil, Pennyroyal Oil, Potpourri Oil, Pine Oil, Peppermint Oil, Cinnamon Oil, Lemongrass Oil, Clove Oil, Thyme Oil, Cedarwood Oil, Rosemary Oil, Eucalyptus Oil, and d-Limonene have been in products associated with signs of toxicity. Signs depend on species affected, agent, dose, and method of exposure.
 
Species   Canine, Feline
 
Signs   Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Alopecia, Anorexia, Ataxia, Back spasms, Blepharospasm, Blindness, Colic, Coma, Congestion oral mucous membranes, Constant or increased vocalization, Coughing, Decreased respiratory rate, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Disoriented, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Epistaxis, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Fever, Forelimb spasms, Gagging, retching, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Head, face, neck spasms, Hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria, Hemoptysis coughing up blood, Hindlimb spasms, Hyperesthesia, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Lacrimation, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Mouth, oral mucosal or tongue pain, Mydriasis, Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, Pain on external abdominal pressure, Pale, Paraparesis, Pruritus, Red or brown urine, Seizures or syncope, Skin edema, Skin erythema, Skin pain, Skin ulcer, Tachycardia, Tongue ulcers, vesicles, Trembling, Tremor, Vomiting or regurgitation
 
References   Khan SA. Concentrated tea tree oil toxicosis in dogs and cats: 443 cases (20022012). JAVMA 2014;244:95 [Web Reference]
Lee JA. Emergency Management and Treatment of the Poisoned Small Animal Patient. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2013;43:757 [Web Reference]
Genovese AG. Adverse reactions from essential oil-containing natural flea products exempted from Environmental Protection Agency regulations in dogs and cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2012;22:470 [Web Reference]
Wismer T. Toxicology of Newer Insecticides in Small Animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2012;42:335 [Web Reference]
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