Description    Lead Toxicity affects free-flying birds and poorly-managed companion or commercial birds. Shot, paint, galvanizing material and solder are some of the sources. Ingested lead might be visible on radiography. Other metals such as zinc, mercury, arsenic, and tin also cause clinical signs.
Species   Avian
Signs   Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Anorexia, Ataxia, Blindness, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Change in voice, Circling, Coma, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dysphagia, Generalized weakness, Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, Hematuria, Hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria, Hypothermia, Inability to stand, Increased mortality in flocks of birds, Lack of growth or weight gain, Neck weakness, Nystagmus, Pale, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Red or brown urine, Reluctant to move, Ruffled, ruffling of the feathers, Seizures or syncope, Sudden death, Tetraparesis, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Unusual or foul odor, stools, feces, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weakness, paresis, paralysis of the legs, limbs in birds, Weakness, paresis, paralysis, drooping, of the wings, Weight loss
References   Eid R. Choroidal Vasculopathy and Retinal Detachment in a Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) With Lead Toxicosis. J Avian Med Surg 2016;30:357 [Web Reference]
Cowan V. Characterizing 1341 cases of veterinary toxicoses confirmed in western Canada: A 16-year retrospective study. Can Vet J 2016;57:53 [Web Reference]
Gonzalez MS. Emergencies and Critical Care of Commonly Kept Fowl. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 2016;19:543 [Web Reference]
Stout JD. Common Emergencies in Pet Birds. Vet Clin N A Exotic Anim Pract 2016;19:513 [Web Reference]
Hedley J. Neurologic Diseases of Birds and Reptiles. J Exotic Pet Med 2015;24:6 [Web Reference]
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