BOTULISM IN BIRDS, CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TOXICITY
 
Description    Botulism caused by the neurotoxin of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM is an important disease of birds, particularly of waterfowl. Birds ingesting fish and invertebrate carcasses infected with the toxin or that eat maggots containing the toxin can be affected. Thousands of ducks have died in outbreaks. Signs usually include a sudden onset of weakness and flaccid paralysis.
 
Species   Avian
 
Signs   Cyanosis, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dyspnea, Exercise intolerance, Generalized weakness, Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, Inability to stand, Increased mortality in flocks of birds, Increased respiratory rate, Lameness, stiffness, stilted gait in birds, Neck weakness, Pale, Ptosis, Reluctant to move, Ruffled, ruffling of the feathers, Skin erythema, Soiling of the feathers, Soiling of the vent in birds, Sudden death, Weakness, paresis, paralysis of the legs, limbs in birds, Weakness, paresis, paralysis, drooping, of the wings
 
References   Souillard R. Investigation of a type C/D botulism outbreak in free-range laying hens in France. Avian Pathol 2017;46:195 [Web Reference]
Le Maréchal C. Development and Validation of a New Reliable Method for the Diagnosis of Avian Botulism. PLoS ONE 2017;12:e0169640 [Web Reference]
González MS. Emergencies and Critical Care of Commonly Kept Fowl. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 2016;19:543 [Web Reference]
Sato Y. Outbreak of Type C Botulism in Commercial Layer Chickens. Avian Dis 2016;60:90 [Web Reference]
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