Description    Botulism caused by the neurotoxin of CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM is an important disease of birds, particularly of waterfowl. Birds ingesting fish and invertebrate carcasses infected with the toxin or that eat maggots containing the toxin can be affected. Thousands of ducks have died in outbreaks. Signs usually include a sudden onset of weakness and flaccid paralysis.
Species   Avian
Signs   Cyanosis, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dyspnea, Exercise intolerance, Generalized weakness, Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, Inability to stand, Increased mortality in flocks of birds, Increased respiratory rate, Lameness, stiffness, stilted gait in birds, Neck weakness, Pale, Ptosis, Reluctant to move, Ruffled, ruffling of the feathers, Skin erythema, Soiling of the feathers, Soiling of the vent in birds, Sudden death, Weakness, paresis, paralysis of the legs, limbs in birds, Weakness, paresis, paralysis, drooping, of the wings
References   Heatley JJ. Avian Vaccination : Current Options and Strategies. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 2018;21:379 [Web Reference]
Silva ROS. Type C botulism in domestic chickens, dogs and black-pencilled marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Anaerobe 2018;Apr [Web Reference]
Lueders I. Unusual Outbreak of Fatal Clostridiosis in a Group of Captive Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis). J Avian Med Surg 2017;31:359 [Web Reference]
Souillard R. Investigation of a type C/D botulism outbreak in free-range laying hens in France. Avian Pathol 2017;46:195 [Web Reference]
Le Maréchal C. Development and Validation of a New Reliable Method for the Diagnosis of Avian Botulism. PLoS ONE 2017;12:e0169640 [Web Reference]
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