ALGAE, CYANOBACTERIUM, ALGAL POISONING IN LARGE ANIMALS
 
Description    Farm animals drinking water from ponds overgrown with several species of fresh-water algae have died suddenly following convulsions or developed other signs of toxicity. Hepatotoxicosis and neurotoxicosis have been documented. A horse developed hepatic disease and encephalopathy associated with administration of a cyanobacteria supplement.
 
Species   Bovine, Equine, Ovine, Porcine
 
Signs   Abdominal distention, Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal pupillary response to light, Agalactia, Anorexia, Ascites, Ataxia, Blindness, Bloat in ruminants, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Bradycardia, Circling, Colic, Coma, Coughing, Cyanosis, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Fever, Generalized weakness, Grinding teeth, Hyperesthesia, Icterus, Inability to stand, Increased borborygmi, Increased respiratory rate, Lack of growth or weight gain, Lacrimation, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Mydriasis, Nystagmus, Opisthotonus, Pale, Prolonged capillary refill time, Reluctant to move, Rumen hypomotility or atony, Seizures or syncope, Sneezing, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Trembling, Tremor, Vomiting or regurgitation
 
References   Classen DM. Microcystin toxicosis in nursery pigs. J Swine Health Prod 2017;25:198 [Web Reference]
Niles GA. Toxicoses of the Ruminant Nervous System. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2017;33:111 [Web Reference]
Mittelman NS. Presumptive Iatrogenic Microcystin-Associated Liver Failure and Encephalopathy in a Holsteiner Gelding. J Vet Intern Med 2016;30:1747 [Web Reference]
Dawson DR. Toxins and Adverse Drug Reactions Affecting the Equine Nervous System. Vet Clin N A Eq Pract 2011;27:507 [Web Reference]
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