Description    A large number of plants and fungi can cause liver damage, as can liver flukes. Skin lesions caused by hepatogenous photosensitization are restricted to unpigmented areas that receive sunlight. Nervous signs can accompany the skin problems or be seen without signs of skin disease in animal not exposed to the sun.
Species   Bovine, Equine, Caprine, Ovine, Porcine
Signs   Abdominal distention, Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Abnormal pupillary response to light, Abnormal upper airway breathing sounds, Agalactia, Alopecia, Anorexia, Ascites, Ataxia, Blepharospasm, Blindness, Bloat in ruminants, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Chemosis, Circling, Cold skin, Colic, Coma, Conjunctival, scleral, redness, Constant or increased vocalization, Corneal edema, opacity, Cracked skin, Cyanosis, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Difficulty in prehending or chewing food, Disoriented, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dysphagia, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Fever, Forelimb spasms, Forelimb swelling, Generalized weakness, Grinding teeth, Head pressing, Head shaking, Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, Head, face, neck spasms, Head, face, neck, tongue hypoesthesia, Hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria, Hindlimb spasms, Hindlimb swelling, Hyperesthesia, Hyperkeratosis, Hypothermia, Icterus, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of urination, Increased rate or strength rumen motility, hypermotility, Increased respiratory rate, Lack of growth or weight gain, Lacrimation, Matted or dirty hair, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Moist skin, hair or feathers, Mucous, mucoid stools, feces, Mydriasis, Neck swelling, Nystagmus, Ocular pain, Oliguria or anuria, Opisthotonus, Pale, Paraparesis, Petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura, Photophobia, Pica, Polydipsia, Prolapsed rectum, Prolonged capillary refill time, Propulsion, Pruritus, Red or brown urine, Reluctant to move, Rough hair coat, Rumen hypomotility or atony, Scarred skin, Seizures or syncope, Skin crusts, Skin edema, Skin erythema, Skin necrosis, Skin pain, Skin plaque, Skin scales, Skin ulcer, Skin vesicles, Sudden death, Swelling mass, vulva, clitoris, Swelling, mass external abdomen, Tachycardia, Tenesmus, Tetraparesis, Thoracic swelling, Tongue protrusion, Tongue weakness, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weak pulse, Weight loss
References   Driehuis F. Silage review: Animal and human health risks from silage. J Dairy Sci 2018;101:4093 [Web Reference]
Russo R. Toxicity of Crepis lacera in grazing ruminants. BMC Vet Res 2018;14:74 [Web Reference]
Lorenzett MP. Neurotoxicosis in horses associated with consumption of Trema micrantha. Equine Vet J 2018;50:192 [Web Reference]
Kelly CS. Experimental poisoning by Vernonia rubricaulis in sheep. Toxicon 2018;141:9 [Web Reference]
Golder HM. Acute photosensitisation and mortality in a herd of dairy cattle in Tasmania. N Z Vet J 2017;65:39 [Web Reference]
Anholt H. Presumptive chronic pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in 2 pygmy goats due to ingestion of tansy ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) in southwestern British Columbia. Can Vet J 2017;58:1171 [Web Reference]
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