Description    A large number of plants and fungi can cause liver damage, as can liver flukes. Skin lesions caused by hepatogenous photosensitization are restricted to unpigmented areas that receive sunlight. Nervous signs can accompany the skin problems or be seen without signs of skin disease in animal not exposed to the sun.
Species   Bovine, Equine, Caprine, Ovine, Porcine
Signs   Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Abnormal pupillary response to light, Abnormal upper airway breathing sounds, Agalactia, Alopecia, Anorexia, Ascites, Ataxia, Blepharospasm, Blindness, Bloat in ruminants, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Chemosis, Circling, Cold skin, Colic, Coma, Conjunctival, scleral, redness, Constant or increased vocalization, Corneal edema, opacity, Cracked skin, Cyanosis, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Difficulty in prehending or chewing food, Disoriented, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Fever, Forelimb spasms, Forelimb swelling, Generalized weakness, Grinding teeth, Head pressing, Head shaking, Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, Head, face, neck spasms, Head, face, neck, tongue hypoesthesia, Hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria, Hindlimb spasms, Hindlimb swelling, Hyperesthesia, Hyperkeratosis, Hypothermia, Icterus, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of urination, Increased rate or strength rumen motility, hypermotility, Increased respiratory rate, Lack of growth or weight gain, Lacrimation, Matted or dirty hair, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Moist skin, hair or feathers, Mucous, mucoid stools, feces, Mydriasis, Ocular pain, Oliguria or anuria, Opisthotonus, Pale, Paraparesis, Petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura, Photophobia, Pica, Prolapsed rectum, Propulsion, Pruritus, Red or brown urine, Reluctant to move, Rough hair coat, Rumen hypomotility or atony, Scarred skin, Seizures or syncope, Skin crusts, Skin edema, Skin erythema, Skin necrosis, Skin pain, Skin plaque, Skin scales, Skin ulcer, Skin vesicles, Sudden death, Swelling mass, vulva, clitoris, Tachycardia, Tenesmus, Tetraparesis, Tongue protrusion, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Vomiting or regurgitation, Weak pulse, Weight loss
References   Golder HM. Acute photosensitisation and mortality in a herd of dairy cattle in Tasmania. N Z Vet J 2017;65:39 [Web Reference]
Kannan KVA. Variability in concentrations of zinc in serum and feed when using zinc oxide as a supplement for the prevention of facial eczema. N Z Vet J 2016;64:356 [Web Reference]
Cuttance EL. Facial eczema management protocols used on dairy farms in the North Island of New Zealand and associated concentrations of zinc in serum. N Z Vet J 2016;64:343 [Web Reference]
Knottenbelt DC. Integumentary Disorders Including Cutaneous Neoplasia in Older Horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2016;32:263 [Web Reference]
Dutra F. Poisoning of sheep by Vernonia plantaginoides (Less.) Hieron in Uruguay. J Vet Diagn Invest 2016;28:392 [Web Reference]
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