Description    Sources of lead causing increased blood lead levels and toxicity include paint, used motor oil, batteries, grease, lead caulking and other materials. Fatal lead toxicity in goats is not usually preceded by signs seen in other ruminants. Calcium EDTA has been used for treatment of lead toxicity in cattle, but in experimental lead toxicosis EDTA alone was not as effective in reducing neurologic signs as treatment with thiamine or thiamine plus EDTA; treatment with both is indicated.
Species   Bovine, Caprine, Ovine
Signs   Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abortion or weak newborns, Agalactia, Anorexia, Ataxia, Blindness, Circling, Colic, Coma, Constant or increased vocalization, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Female infertility, Fever, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Grinding teeth, Head pressing, Hyperesthesia, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of urination, Increased respiratory rate, Nystagmus, Opisthotonus, Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, Pale, Papilledema, Propulsion, Rumen hypomotility or atony, Seizures or syncope, Strabismus, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Tetany, Tongue ulcers, vesicles, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Weight loss
References   Niles GA. Toxicoses of the Ruminant Nervous System. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2017;33:111 [Web Reference]
Middleton JR. Cerebral Disorders of the Adult Ruminant. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2017;33:43 [Web Reference]
Cowan V. Acute lead poisoning in western Canadian cattle A 16-year retrospective study of diagnostic case records. Can Vet J 2016;57:421 [Web Reference]
Cowan V. Characterizing 1341 cases of veterinary toxicoses confirmed in western Canada: A 16-year retrospective study. Can Vet J 2016;57:53 [Web Reference]
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