Description    Leukoencephalomalacia is caused by ingestion of grain, usually corn, infected with mold of FUSARIUM containing the toxic agent fumonosin. Single or multiple horses develop an acute severe neurologic disorder, a hepatic syndrome, or sudden death. There is liquefactive necrosis of the white matter of the cerebral cortex and there might be histologic lesions in the liver ranging from mild changes to fibrosis.
Species   Equine
Signs   Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Abnormal pupillary response to light, Agalactia, Anorexia, Ataxia, Blindness, Circling, Colic, Coma, Cyanosis, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Decreased borborygmi, Decreased, absent thirst, hypodipsia, adipsia, Dehydration, Difficulty in prehending or chewing food, Disoriented, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dysphagia, Dyspnea, Excessive salivation, Excitement, Fever, Generalized weakness, Head pressing, Head shaking, Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, Head, face, neck, tongue hypoesthesia, Hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria, Hyperesthesia, Icterus, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Mydriasis, Opisthotonus, Paraparesis, Petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura, Prolonged capillary refill time, Propulsion, Red or brown urine, Reluctant to move, Seizures or syncope, Skin edema, Sudden death, Sweating, Tachycardia, Tetraparesis, Tongue weakness, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Weight loss
References   Vendruscolo CP. Leukoencephalomalacia Outbreak in Horses due to Consumption of Contaminated Hay. J Vet Intern Med 2016;30:1879 [Web Reference]
O`Donnell K. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States. J Clin Microbiol 2016;54:2813 [Web Reference]
Rech R. Neurologic Diseases in Horses. Vet Clin N A Eq Pract 2015;31:281 [Web Reference]
Al-Dissi A. Toxicology for the Equine Practitioner. Vet Clin N A Eq Pract 2015;31:269 [Web Reference]
Jovanovic M. Fumonisin Toxicosis in Horses. J Comp Pathol 2015;152:51 [Web Reference]
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