MOLDY SWEET CLOVER, VERNAL GRASS, DICOUMAROL, POISONING IN LARGE ANIMALS
 
Description    Some moldy sweet clovers (MELILOTUS ALBA, M. OFFICINALIS), and sweet vernal grass (ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM) contain dicoumarol that competes with vitamin K, leading to decreased prothrombin formation and bleeding. Poisoning occurs in several species but is most common in cattle; fatality rate can be high. Vitamin K1 treatment can be effective but vitamin K3 neither treats nor prevents the disease.
 
Species   Bovine, Equine, Caprine, Ovine, Porcine
 
Signs   Abdominal distention, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Abortion or weak newborns, Anorexia, Back swelling, Bloody milk, Bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, Colic, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Dehydration, Dullness, Dyspnea, Epistaxis, Forefoot swelling, Forelimb lameness, Forelimb swelling, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, Hemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, Hindfoot swelling, Hindlimb lameness, Hindlimb swelling, Inability to stand, Increased respiratory rate, Internal abdominal mass, Melena or occult blood in feces, stools, Neck swelling, Pale, Paraparesis, Petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura, Reluctant to move, Skin edema, Sudden death, Swelling skin or subcutaneous, Swelling, mass external abdomen, Tachycardia, Thoracic swelling, Trembling, Weak pulse
 
References   Mostrom MS. Ruminant Mycotoxicosis. Vet Clin N A Food Anim Pract 2011;27:315 [Web Reference]
McGorum BC. Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in a Standardbred Colt. J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:1307 [Web Reference]
Haskell SRR. Antidotes in food animal practice. JAVMA 2005;226:884 [Web Reference]
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