NIGROPALLIDAL ENCEPHALOMALACIA, CENTAUREA, ACROPTILON, POISONING, IN HORSES
 
Description    Nigropallidal Encephalomalacia is caused by ingestion of yellow star-thistle (CENTAUREA SOLSTITIALIS) or Russian knapweed (ACROPTILON REPENS). There are necrosis of the substantia nigra and globus pallidus on necropsy. Horses develop a wooden expression and the onset of loss of fine motor control of prehension and mastication of food can be rapid. Secondary pneumonia can occur.
 
Species   Equine
 
Signs   Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal breath odor, Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Ataxia, Circling, Dehydration, Difficulty in prehending or chewing food, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dysphagia, Dyspnea, Excitement, Generalized weakness, Grinding teeth, Head pressing, Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, Hyperesthesia, Inability to open (trismus) and/or close jaw, Increased respiratory rate, Neck weakness, Propulsion, Skin edema, Tongue protrusion, Tongue weakness, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Weight loss
 
References   Richter A. Dystonia and Paroxysmal Dyskinesias: Under-Recognized Movement Disorders in Domestic Animals? A Comparison with Human Dystonia/Paroxysmal Dyskinesias. Front Vet Sci 2015;http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2015.00065 [Web Reference]
Rech R. Neurologic Diseases in Horses. Vet Clin N A Eq Pract 2015;31:281 [Web Reference]
Al-Dissi A. Toxicology for the Equine Practitioner. Vet Clin N A Eq Pract 2015;31:269 [Web Reference]
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