OXALATE POISONING OR ETHYLENE GLYCOL TOXICITY IN RUMINANTS
 
Description    Several plants can cause oxalate toxicity in ruminants. Acute signs are associated with hypocalcemia, and chronic ingestion can lead to renal failure. Ethylene glycol toxicity produces a similar syndrome.
 
Species   Bovine, Caprine, Ovine
 
Signs   Abdominal distention, Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Agalactia, Anorexia, Ascites, Ataxia, Blindness, Bloat in ruminants, Coma, Decreased amount of stools, absent feces, constipation, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Enophthalmos, Epistaxis, Excessive salivation, Exercise intolerance, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Grinding teeth, Hemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria, Hemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, Hyperesthesia, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of urination, Increased respiratory rate, Lack of growth or weight gain, Mucoid nasal discharge, Mydriasis, Nystagmus, Pale, Paraparesis, Polydipsia, Red or brown urine, Reluctant to move, Rumen hypomotility or atony, Seizures or syncope, Sudden death, Tachycardia, Tetany, Trembling, Tremor, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Weight loss
 
References   Niles GA. Toxicoses of the Ruminant Nervous System. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2017;33:111 [Web Reference]
Cortinovis C. Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe. The Vet J 2013;197:163 [Web Reference]
Aslani MR. Acute oxalate intoxication associated to ingestion of eshnan (Seidlitzia rosmarinus) in sheep. Tropical Anim Health Prod 2011;43:1065 [Web Reference]
Poppenga RH. Commercial and Industrial Chemical Hazards for Ruminants. Vet Clin N A Food Anim Pract 2011;27:373 [Web Reference]
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