Description    Increased levels of plasma cortisol leading to clinical signs are the result of either exogenous administration or endogenous production of glucocorticoids. Endogenous production usually results from a pituitary tumor producing excessive ACTH that stimulates the adrenal cortex. Unilateral or (rarely) bilateral adrenocortical neoplasia is the underlying cause in 15-20% of cases. Diabetes mellitus, secondary pyoderma, and calcinosis cutis might be seen and myotonia is a rare complication, often in older dogs. Neurologic signs of brain stem disease might be seen with a large pituitary tumor.
Species   Canine
Signs   Abdominal distention, Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal size testes/scrotum, Alopecia, Anestrus, Anisocoria, Anorexia, Ataxia, Back atrophy, Blindness, Bunny hopping, Circling, Cold skin, Coma, Corneal edema, opacity, Corneal ulcer, Decreased tearing, lacrimation, Disoriented, Dryness of skin or hair, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Enophthalmos, Exercise intolerance, Female infertility, Forelimb atrophy, Forelimb lameness, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Generalized weakness, Glucosuria, Head pressing, Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, Head, face, jaw, tongue atrophy, Hepatosplenomegaly, Hindlimb atrophy, Hindlimb lameness, Hyperesthesia, Hypertonia of muscles, myotonia, Hyphema, Increased respiratory rate, Internal abdominal mass, Lack of libido or erection, Male infertility, Miosis, Moist skin, hair or feathers, Mydriasis, Oily skin, hair or feathers, greasy, Overweight, Petechiae, ecchymoses, purpura, Polydipsia, Polyphagia, Polyuria, Propulsion, Pruritus, Ptosis, Purulent discharge skin, Rough hair coat, Seizures or syncope, Skin crusts, Skin erythema, Skin hyperpigmentation, Skin or muscle dimple, Skin pain, Skin papules, Skin plaque, Skin pustules, Skin scales, Skin ulcer, Strabismus, Swelling mass, vulva, clitoris, Swelling skin or subcutaneous, Thin skin, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Weight loss
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van Rijn SJ. The Influence of Pituitary Size on Outcome After Transsphenoidal Hypophysectomy in a Large Cohort of Dogs with Pituitary-Dependent Hypercortisolism. J Vet Intern Med 2016;30:989 [Web Reference]
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Woolcock AD. Evaluation of baseline cortisol concentration to monitor efficacy of twice-daily administration of trilostane to dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism: 22 cases (20082012). JAVMA 2016;248:814 [Web Reference]
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