Description    Intervertebral Disk Disease causes compression of and damage to the spinal cord. Common in dogs, rare in cats.
Species   Canine, Feline
Signs   Abnormal anal, perineal, tail reflexes, Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal forelimb reflexes, Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, Abnormal panniculus reflex, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Ataxia, Back pain, Back spasms, Change in voice, Decreased respiratory rate, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Enlarged, distended, urinary bladder, Enophthalmos, Fecal incontinence, Forelimb hypoesthesia, Forelimb lameness, Forelimb weakness, Head, face, neck spasms, Hemiparesis, Hindlimb atrophy, Hindlimb hypoesthesia, Hindlimb lameness, Hyperesthesia, Hypertonia of muscles, myotonia, Inability to stand, Miosis, Muscle hypotonia, Pain, neck, cervical, throat, Paraparesis, Prolapsed third eyelid, Ptosis, Reluctant to move, Stiffness or extended neck, Tail weakness, Tail, anal hypoesthesia, Tetraparesis, Urinary incontinence, Weakness of one hindlimb
References   Gorney AM. Mechanical and Thermal Sensory Testing in Normal Chondrodystrophoid Dogs and Dogs with Spinal Cord Injury caused by Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniations. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2016;30:627635 [Web Reference]
Giambuzzi S. Perineural Injection for Treatment of Root-Signature Signs Associated with Lateralized Disk Material in Five Dogs (20092013). Front Vet Sci 2016; [Web Reference]
Cardy TJA. Clinical characterization of thoracolumbar and lumbar intervertebral disk extrusions in English Cocker Spaniels. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2016;248:405-412 [Web Reference]
Jeffery ND. Factors associated with recovery from paraplegia in dogs with loss of pain perception in the pelvic limbs following intervertebral disk herniation. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2016;248:386-394 [Web Reference]
Olby NJ. A Placebo-Controlled, Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial of Polyethylene Glycol and Methylprednisolone Sodium Succinate in Dogs with Intervertebral Disk Herniation. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2016;30:206214 [Web Reference]
Hakozaki T. Cervical intervertebral disk herniation in chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid small-breed dogs: 187 cases (1993-2013). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2015;247:1408-1411 [Web Reference]
De Risio L. A review of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy and different types of peracute non-compressive intervertebral disk extrusions in dogs and cats. Front Vet Sci 2015; [Web Reference]
Ferrand F-X. Thoracolumbar partial lateral corpectomy for the treatment of chronic intervertebral disc disease in 107 dogs. Irish Veterinary Journal 2015;68:DOI:10.1186/s13620-015-0056-z [Web Reference]
Lappalainen AK. Estimate of heritability and genetic trend of intervertebral disc calcification in Dachshunds in Finland. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2015;57:78 [Web Reference]
Lampe1 R, Davies ES. Intradural intervertebral disc herniation in a 5-year-old dachshund. Vet Rec Case Rep 2015;3:e000200 [Web Reference]
Cardy TJA. Clinical reasoning in canine spinal disease: what combination of clinical information is useful? Veterinary Record 2015;177:171 [Web Reference]
Solano MA et al. Cervical Distraction-Stabilization Using an Intervertebral Spacer Screw and String-of Pearl (SOP) Plates in 16 Dogs With Disc-Associated Wobbler Syndrome. Veterinary Surgery 2015;44:627-641 [Web Reference]
Bersan E et al. Cervical intervertebral foraminal disc extrusion in dogs: clinical presentation, MRI characteristics and outcome after medical management. Veterinary Record 2015;176:597 [Web Reference]
Chamisha Y et al. The prognostic value of cerebrospinal fluid characteristics in dogs without deep pain perception due to thoracolumbar disc herniation. Research in Veterinary Science 2015;100:189-196 [Web Reference]
Tamura S et al. Thoracolumbar intradural disc herniation in eight dogs: clinical, low-field magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomographic myelography. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 2015;56:160-167 [Web Reference]
Chow K et al. Probable lumbar acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion in a cat with acute onset paraparesis. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 2012;14:764-767 [Web Reference]
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