INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, DISC, DISEASE, NUCLEUS PULPOSUS EXTRUSION
 
Description    Intervertebral Disk Disease causing spinal cord compression and damage is a common and important disease in dogs; infrequent in cats, rare in horses. Signs depend on the location of the lesion.
 
Species   Canine, Equine, Feline
 
Signs   Abnormal anal, perineal, tail reflexes, Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal forelimb reflexes, Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, Abnormal panniculus reflex, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Ataxia, Back pain, Back spasms, Change in voice, Constant or increased vocalization, Decreased respiratory rate, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Enlarged, distended, urinary bladder, Enophthalmos, Fecal incontinence, Forelimb hypoesthesia, Forelimb lameness, Forelimb weakness, Generalized lameness or stiffness, Head, face, neck spasms, Hemiparesis, Hindlimb atrophy, Hindlimb hypoesthesia, Hindlimb lameness, Hyperesthesia, Hypertonia of muscles, myotonia, Inability to stand, Increased frequency of urination, Miosis, Muscle hypotonia, Pain, neck, cervical, throat, Paraparesis, Prolapsed third eyelid, Ptosis, Reluctant to move, Stiffness or extended neck, Tail weakness, Tail, anal hypoesthesia, Tetraparesis, Torticollis, Urinary incontinence, Weakness of one hindlimb
 
References   Crawford AH. Comparison between Hemilaminectomy with either Anulectomy or Partial Discectomy for Treatment of Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disc Protrusion in Dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2018;Apr [Web Reference]
Dyall BAR. Surgical Site Infection Rate after Hemilaminectomy and Laminectomy in Dogs without Perioperative Antibiotic Therapy. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol [Web Reference]
Zidan N. A randomized, blinded, prospective clinical trial of postoperative rehabilitation in dogs after surgical decompression of acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation. J Vet Intern Med 2018;Apr [Web Reference]
Chai O. Characteristics of and risk factors for intervertebral disk extrusions in Pekingese. JAVMA 2018;252:846 [Web Reference]
Espadas I. Optimal safe implantation corridors in feline cervical vertebrae (C2T1): CT study in 16 domestic shorthair cats. J Feline Med Surg 2018;Feb [Web Reference]
Bergmann W. Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in Warmblood Horses: Morphology, Grading, and Distribution of Lesions. Vet Pathol 2018;Jan [Web Reference]
Crawford AH. Ventral Slot Surgery to Manage Cervical Intervertebral Disc Disease in Three Cats. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2018;31:071 [Web Reference]
Inglez de Souza MCCM. Evaluation of the influence of kyphosis and scoliosis on intervertebral disc extrusion in French bulldogs. BMC Vet Res 2018;14:5 [Web Reference]
Jeffery ND. The Role of Fenestration in Management of Type I Thoracolumbar Disk Degeneration. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2018;48:187 [Web Reference]
Jeffery ND. Choices and Decisions in Decompressive Surgery for Thoracolumbar Intervertebral Disk Herniation. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2018;48:169 [Web Reference]
De Decker S. Acute Herniation of Nondegenerate Nucleus Pulposus: Acute Noncompressive Nucleus Pulposus Extrusion and Compressive Hydrated Nucleus Pulposus Extrusion. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2018;48:95 [Web Reference]
Borlace T. Comparison of medical and surgical treatment for acute cervical compressive hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion in dogs. Vet Rec 2017;181:625 [Web Reference]
Annette W. Compressive hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion: is surgery necessary? Vet Rec 2017;181:622 [Web Reference]
Ros C. Myelographic and low-field magnetic resonance imaging findings in dogs with presumptive acute hydrated non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion. Vet Rec 2017;181:594 [Web Reference]
Beltran E. Acute hydrated non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion: what do we know so far? Vet Rec 2017;181:591 [Web Reference]
Alisauskaite N. Chronic post-traumatic intramedullary lesions in dogs, a translational model. PLoS ONE 2017;12:e0187746 [Web Reference]
Hansen T. The Myth of Fibroid Degeneration in the Canine Intervertebral Disc: A Histopathological Comparison of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in Chondrodystrophic and Nonchondrodystrophic Dogs. Vet Pathol 2017;54:945 [Web Reference]
Moriguchi Y. Total disc replacement using tissue-engineered intervertebral discs in the canine cervical spine. PLoS ONE 2017;12:e0185716 [Web Reference]
Affenzeller N. Human-directed aggressive behaviour as the main presenting sign in dogs subsequently diagnosed with diskospondylitis. Vet Rec Case Reports 2017;5:e000501 [Web Reference]
Noyes JA. Magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography to plan hemilaminectomies in chondrodystrophic dogs with intervertebral disc extrusion. Vet Surg 2017;46:1025 [Web Reference]
Sherman R. Aspiration Pneumonia in the Dog: A Review. Topics Companion Anim Med 2017;32:1 [Web Reference]
Mayousse V. Prevalence of neurological disorders in French bulldog: a retrospective study of 343 cases (20022016). BMC Vet Res 2017;13:212 [Web Reference]
Belanger JM. Correlation of neuter status and expression of heritable disorders. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2017;4:6 [Web Reference]
Crawford AH. Clinical presentation and outcome of dogs treated medically or surgically for thoracolumbar intervertebral disc protrusion. Vet Rec 2017;180:569 [Web Reference]
Wang-Leandro A. Comparison of Preoperative Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Clinical Assessment of Deep Pain Perception as Prognostic Tools for Early Recovery of Motor Function in Paraplegic Dogs with Intervertebral Disk Herniations. J Vet Intern Med 2017;31:842 [Web Reference]
Hodgson MM. Influence of in-house rehabilitation on the postoperative outcome of dogs with intervertebral disk herniation. Vet Surg 2017;46:566 [Web Reference]
Medl SC. Individualized mini-hemilaminectomy-corpectomy (iMHC) for treatment of thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation in large breed dogs. Vet Surg 2017;46:422 [Web Reference]
Falzone C. Canine acute cervical myelopathy: Hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion or intraspinal discal cysts? Vet Surg 2017;46:376 [Web Reference]
De Decker S. Prevalence and breed predisposition for thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease in cats. J Feline Med Surg 2017;19:419 [Web Reference]
Svensson G. Residual Spinal Cord Compression Following Hemilaminectomy and Mini-Hemilaminectomy in Dogs: A Prospective Randomized Study. Front Vet Sci 2017;Mar [Web Reference]
Freeman P. Re-opening the window on fenestration as a treatment for acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation in dogs. JSAP 2017;58:199 [Web Reference]
Gallucci A. Acquisition of Involuntary Spinal Locomotion (Spinal Walking) in Dogs with Irreversible Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Lesion: 81 Dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2017;31:492 [Web Reference]
Langfitt E. Disorders of micturition in small animal patients: clinical significance, etiologies, and management strategies. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2017;27:164 [Web Reference]
Taylor-Brown FE. Presumptive acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion in 11 cats: clinical features, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment and outcome. J Feline Med Surg 2017;19:21 [Web Reference]
Langerhuus L. Proportion recovery and times to ambulation for non-ambulatory dogs with thoracolumbar disc extrusions treated with hemilaminectomy or conservative treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of case-series studies. Vet J 2017;220:7 [Web Reference]
Copyright © 2018 Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine