Description    Intervertebral Disk Disease causes compression of and damage to the spinal cord. Common in dogs, rare in cats.
Species   Canine, Feline
Signs   Abnormal anal, perineal, tail reflexes, Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits, Abnormal forelimb reflexes, Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, Abnormal panniculus reflex, Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, Ataxia, Back pain, Back spasms, Change in voice, Decreased respiratory rate, Dullness, Dysmetria, Dyspnea, Enlarged, distended, urinary bladder, Enophthalmos, Fecal incontinence, Forelimb hypoesthesia, Forelimb lameness, Forelimb weakness, Head, face, neck spasms, Hemiparesis, Hindlimb atrophy, Hindlimb hypoesthesia, Hindlimb lameness, Hyperesthesia, Hypertonia of muscles, myotonia, Inability to stand, Miosis, Muscle hypotonia, Pain, neck, cervical, throat, Paraparesis, Prolapsed third eyelid, Ptosis, Reluctant to move, Stiffness or extended neck, Tail weakness, Tail, anal hypoesthesia, Tetraparesis, Urinary incontinence, Weakness of one hindlimb
References   Solano MA et al. Cervical Distraction-Stabilization Using an Intervertebral Spacer Screw and String-of Pearl (SOP™) Plates in 16 Dogs With Disc-Associated Wobbler Syndrome. Veterinary Surgery 2015;44:627–641 [Web Reference]
Bersan E et al. Cervical intervertebral foraminal disc extrusion in dogs: clinical presentation, MRI characteristics and outcome after medical management. Veterinary Record 2015;176:597 [Web Reference]
Chamisha Y et al. The prognostic value of cerebrospinal fluid characteristics in dogs without deep pain perception due to thoracolumbar disc herniation. Research in Veterinary Science 2015;100:189–196 [Web Reference]
Tamura S et al. Thoracolumbar intradural disc herniation in eight dogs: clinical, low-field magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomographic myelography. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 2015;56:160–167 [Web Reference]
Lappalainen AK et al. Intervertebral disc disease in Dachshunds radiographically screened for intervertebral disc calcifications. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 2014;56:89 [Web Reference]
Huska JL et al. Presence of residual material following mini-hemilaminectomy in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. Can Vet J 2014;55:975–980 [Web Reference]
Huska JL et al. Comparison of the access window created by hemilaminectomy and mini-hemilaminectomy in the thoracolumbar vertebral canal using computed tomography. Can Vet J 2014;55:449-455 [Web Reference]
Grossbard BP et al. Medical Infrared Imaging (Thermography) of Type I Thoracolumbar Disk Disease in Chondrodystrophic Dogs. Veterinary Surgery 2014;43:869-876 [Web Reference]
Trevail R, Behr S. Differential diagnoses and treatment of cervical syndrome or neck pain. In Practice 2014;36:391-407 [Web Reference]
Salger F et al. Neurologic Outcome After Thoracolumbar Partial Lateral Corpectomy for Intervertebral Disc Disease in 72 Dogs. Veterinary Surgery 2014;43:581-588 [Web Reference]
Rosenblatt AJ et al. Radiographic scoring for intervertebral disc calcification in the Dachshund. The Veterinary Journal 2014;200:355-361 [Web Reference]
Levine JM et al. Efficacy of a Metalloproteinase Inhibitor in Spinal Cord Injured Dogs. PLoS ONE 2014;9:e96408 [Web Reference]
Cooper JJ et al. Comparison between noncontrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for detection and characterization of thoracolumbar myelopathy caused by intervertebral disk herniation in dogs. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 2014;55:182-189 [Web Reference]
Hearon K et al. Upper Thoracic Disc Disease (T1-T9) in Large-Breed Dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 2014;50:105-111 [Web Reference]
Steffen F et al. Spontaneous regression of lumbar Hansen type 1 disk extrusion detected with magnetic resonance imaging in a dog. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2014;244:715-718 [Web Reference]
Murakami T et al. Evaluation of the accuracy of neurologic data, survey radiographic results, or both for localization of the site of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 2014;75:251-259 [Web Reference]
Bach FC et al. Potential regenerative treatment strategies for intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs. BMC Veterinary Research 2014;10:3 [Web Reference]
Jeffery ND et al. Intervertebral Disk Degeneration in Dogs: Consequences, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Future Directions. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2013;27:1318-1333 [Web Reference]
Chow K et al. Probable lumbar acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion in a cat with acute onset paraparesis. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 2012;14:764-767 [Web Reference]
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