Description    MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM subspecies PARATUBERCULOSIS causes infectious chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. Calves are most susceptible to infection from birth to a few months of age but the incubation period prior to the onset of clinical signs generally ranges from 2 to 10 years. Fecal-oral transmission from cows to calves is believed to be the most common method of spread; also shed in milk and colostrum. Intrauterine infection can occur but does not appear to be of major importance in the transmission of paratuberculosis. Affected cattle continue to eat even as chronic diarrhea and weight loss persist. In goats the disease primarily affects the upper GI tract and weight loss might be the only obvious sign, with diarrhea intermittent or absent. Usually affects goats 2-years-old or older but yearlings can be affected. Paratuberculosis is common in flocks of sheep but identification of individual sheep with subclinical infections is difficult. Sheep might not show signs for years after being infected and there is often weight loss without other signs.
Species   Bovine, Caprine, Ovine
Signs   Agalactia, Alopecia, Anestrus, Anorexia, Dark color stools, feces, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dryness of skin or hair, Dullness, Female infertility, Fever, Generalized weakness, Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, Inability to stand, Lack of growth or weight gain, Pale, Polydipsia, Polyphagia, Rough hair coat, Skin edema, Tachycardia, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Weight loss
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Mitchell RM et al. Differences in intermittent and continuous fecal shedding patterns between natural and experimental Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infections in cattle. Veterinary Research 2015;46:66 [Web Reference]
Liapi M et al. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sheep Strains Isolated from Cyprus Sheep and Goats. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 2015;62:223–227 [Web Reference]
Lavers CJ et al. Sensitivity and specificity of repeated test results from a commercial milk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2015;246:236-244 [Web Reference]
Laurin EL et al. The association of detection method, season, and lactation stage on identification of fecal shedding in Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infectious dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 2015;98:211-220 [Web Reference]
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