MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS, JOHNE'S DISEASE
 
Description    MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM subspecies PARATUBERCULOSIS causes infectious chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. Calves are most susceptible to infection from birth to a few months of age but the incubation period prior to the onset of clinical signs generally ranges from 2 to 10 years. Fecal-oral transmission from cows to calves is believed to be the most common method of spread; also shed in milk and colostrum. Intrauterine infection can occur but does not appear to be of major importance in the transmission of paratuberculosis. Affected cattle continue to eat even as chronic diarrhea and weight loss persist. In goats the disease primarily affects the upper GI tract and weight loss might be the only obvious sign, with diarrhea intermittent or absent. Usually affects goats 2-years-old or older but yearlings can be affected. Paratuberculosis is common in flocks of sheep but identification of individual sheep with subclinical infections is difficult. Sheep might not show signs for years after being infected and there is often weight loss without other signs.
 
Species   Bovine, Caprine, Ovine
 
Signs   Agalactia, Alopecia, Anestrus, Anorexia, Dark color stools, feces, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Dryness of skin or hair, Dullness, Female infertility, Fever, Generalized weakness, Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, Inability to stand, Lack of growth or weight gain, Pale, Polydipsia, Polyphagia, Rough hair coat, Skin edema, Tachycardia, Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift, Weight loss
 
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Windsor P et al. Effectiveness of Gudair vaccine for the control of ovine Johne`s disease in flocks vaccinating for at least 5 years. Australian Veterinary Journal 2014;92:263-268 [Web Reference]
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Brito BP et al. Association between caudal fold tuberculin test responses and results of an ELISA for Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis and mycobacterial culture of feces in tuberculosis-free dairy herds. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2014;244:582-587 [Web Reference]
Donat K et al. Prevalence and control measures within the herd influence the performance of ELISA tests. Veterinary Record 2014;174:119 [Web Reference]
Angelidou E et al. Bayesian validation of a serum and milk ELISA for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Greek dairy goats across lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 2014;97:819-828 [Web Reference]
Lavers CJ et al. Evaluation of milk ELISA fordetection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis indairy herds and association with within-herd prevalence. Journal of Dairy Science 2014;97:299-309 [Web Reference]
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