Copyrighted material displayed with permission from the "The Cornell Book of Cats." Compiled by Drs. John E. Saidla and Jeffrey E. Barlough.
ABSCESS - Walled-off, pus-filled lesion.
ACARIASIS - Mite infestation.
ACHOLIC FECES - Lightly colored feces resulting from the absence of bile in the intestine.
ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME - AIDS in human beings; infection with the human immunodeficiency virus can result in AIDS.
ACTINOMYCES - Bacterium common in the mouth of cats, other animals, and humans.
ACUTE - Short term; of short duration; short and relatively severe.
ACUTE HEPATIC NECROSIS - Liver cell death.
ADDISON'S DISEASE - Hypoadrenocorticism [i.e., insufficient secretion by the adrenal cortex].
ADENOCARCINOMA - Malignant tumor of glandular tissue.
ADENOMA - Benign tumor of glandular tissue.
ADIPSIA - Absence of thirst.
AD LIBITUM - Free choice at will.
ADRENAL GLANDS - Endocrine glands located adjacent to the kidneys.
ADRENALINE - Epinephrine, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands.
ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE [ACTH] - A hormone produced by the pituitary gland, which controls the cortex of the adrenal gland.
ADSORB - To bind to a surface.
AEROBIC - Growing in the presence of oxygen.
AEROSOL EXPOSURE - Exposure to an infectious agent via moisture droplets drifting in the air.
AFLATOXIN - Poison [mold toxin] that can cause serious liver injury if ingested.
AGAR - A gel extracted from algae.
AGENESIS - Congenital absence of a structure.
ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE [ALT] - An enzyme found within liver cells.
ALBUMIN - A major protein component of blood plasma.
ALDOSTERONE - A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, which regulates sodium, chloride, and potassium balance.
ALKALI - Any one of a group of compounds that form soap when mixed with fat.
ALKALOID - One of a group of substances found in plants; usually bitter [e.g., atropine, caffeine, morphine, nicotine, quinine, strychnine].
ALLELE - One of the forms of a given gene.
ALLERGEN - Substance that can produce an allergic reaction.
ALOPECIA - Absence or loss of hair.
ALOPECIA AREATA - An inflammatory disease resulting in patchy loss of hair.
ALVEOLUS - One of the many small air sacs that comprise the inner most structure of the lungs.
AMEBOID ACTION - Movement resembling that of an ameba; the cell extends its cytoplasm and then the rest follows.
AMELIA - Congenital absence of a limb.
AMINO ACIDS - Nitrogen-containing molecules; the chief structural components of protein.
AMMONIA - A waste product of protein metabolism.
ANABOLISM - The body's conversion of simple substances to complex compounds.
ANAEROBIC - Growing in the absence of oxygen.
ANAMNESTIC RESPONSE - Rapid reappearance of antibody.
ANAPHYLATIC REACTION - An acute, exaggerated allergic reaction.
ANATOMY - The science of the structure of the body.
ANDROGEN - Any male sex hormone.
ANEMIA - Low red blood cell count, reduced hemoglobin, or reduced volume of packed red cells.
ANENCEPHALY - Congenital absence of the brain.
ANESTRUS - The sexually active period in a seasonally polyestrous cycle, usually during the fall or winter months.
ANGIOEDEMA - Recurrent wheals or welts on the skin, caused by capillary leakage.
ANGIOGRAPHY - Radiograph of blood vessels after being injected with a contrast medium.
ANKYLOSIS - The immobility and consolidation of a joint secondary to injury, infection, or nutritional disorder.
ANORECTIC - Having no appetite.
ANOREXIA - Loss of appetite.
ANTEMORTEM - Before death.
ANTERIOR CHAMBER - A large space filled with aqueous fluid at the front of the eye, between the cornea and lens.
ANTHELMINTIC - Dewormer; medication for intestinal parasites.
ANTIBIOTICS - Chemical substances, such as penicillin or streptomycin, produced by various microorganisms, which are able to kill or inhibit growth of other microorganisms.
ANTIBODY - Specialized protein produced by the immune system in reaction to the presence of a foreign substance [bacterium, virus, toxin] in the body, which is capable of binding to the specific antigen on that substance; immunoglobulin.
ANTIFUNGAL - Chemical substance, such as griseofulvin, produced by microorganisms or by other means, used in the treatment of fungal infections.
ANTIGEN - A substance capable of inducing a specific immune response in a body by binding to a specific antibody; can be a property of bacteria, viruses, tissue cells, or foreign proteins.
ANTIMICROBIAL - An antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral drug.
ANTINEOPLASTIC - Anticancer.
ANTIONCOGENES - Genes whose presence represses cancer, and in whose absence, by a hereditary abnormality, certain specific kinds of tumors may develop.
ANTISERUM - Clear blood liquid containing antibody, taken from an animal that has been injected or infected with the antigen.
AORTIC STENOSIS - The constriction of the aortic orifice or of the aorta.
APLASIA - Imperfect development of a tissue or organ.
APNEA - Cessation of breathing.
APOCRINE GLAND - Special type of gland, such as a sweat gland attached to a hair follicle.
AQUEOUS FLUID - Fluid produced by the ciliary process and filling the anterior chamber of the eye.
ARACHIDONIC ACID - Essential fatty acid found in animal fat.
ARMAMENTARIUM - In medicine: collection of medical equipment, techniques, and medicines.
ARRHYTHMIA - Variation from normal heartbeat.
ARTERITIS - Inflammation of an artery.
ARTHROPOD - An invertebrate organism with a segmented body; examples include insects and crustaceans.
ASCARIASIS - Infection by roundworms.
ASCARIDS - Roundworms, e.g., Toxocara cati
ASCENDING - Moving up.
ASCITES - The accumulation of serous fluid within the abdominal cavity.
ASCORBIC ACID - Vitamin C.
ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE [AST] - A liver cell enzyme that is also found in muscle cells and red blood cells.
ASPIRATED - Inhaled into the lungs or withdrawn by a syringe.
ASPIRATION SMEAR - The procedure by which a preparation is drawn through a needle and then smeared onto a glass microscope slide for examination.
ATAXIA - Incoordination.
ATOPY - Inherited allergy.
ATRESIA - Congenital absence or blockage of an orifice or tubular organ.
ATRESIA ANI - Absence of anal opening.
ATRIUM - [plural, ATRIA] One of the two upper chambers of the heart.
ATROPHY - Shrinking or wasting of a tissue or organ.
ATROPINE - A drug that blocks nerve impulses [e.g., to the iris], causing dilation of the pupil.
AURICLE - External ear, pinna; the term auricle also refers to a small, blind sac or ear-shaped pouch attached to an atrium of the heart.
AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSE - Immune response directed against the body's own tissues.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM - Subconscious nervous system.
AUTOSOMAL - Referring to the paired body chromosomes, not to a sex chromosome.
AUTOSOME - An ordinary paired body chromosome, without any sexual characteristic.
AWN HAIRS - Intermediate-sized hairs forming part of the primary coat.
AXON - The single fingerlike extension from a nerve cell body.
BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS - Inflammation of the lining of the heart, caused by bacteria.
BACTERIAL FOLLICULITIS - Inflammation of the hair follicles, caused by bacteria.
BASAL - Base, lowest.
BASOPHIL - A specialized white blood cell.
BASOPHILIC - Dark blue staining.
BENIGN - No cancerous [i.e., such a tumor will not spread]; harmless.
BETA-BLOCKER - A drug that inhibits certain nerve impulses.
BILATERALLY - On both sides.
BILIARY CIRRHOSIS - A disease of the liver characterized by destruction of the normal architecture, which is replaced essentially by scar tissue.
BILIRUBIN - A yellow breakdown product of recycled hemoglobin from red blood cells.
BINOCULAR VISION - Focusing both eyes on a single object.
BIOPSY - The procedure by which a small sample of tissue is obtained for microscopic examination or culture.
BLASTOCYST - An early stage of the developing embryo.
BLEOMYCIN - An antibiotic antineoplastic [anticancer] agent.
BLEPHAROSPASM - Spasm of the eyelid muscle, causing closure.
BLOOD - A fluid that circulates through the blood vessels, carrying oxygen and nutrients to body cells.
BLOOD PLASMA - The liquid component of blood [as opposed to blood cells].
BLOOD SMEAR - A thin layer of blood smeared on a slide, stained, and viewed under the microscope to identify the maturity and type of blood cells present and any abnormalities of the cells.
BLOOD UREA NITROGEN [BUN] - Nitrogenous waste products in the blood.
BLOOD VESSELS - Arteries, arterioles, venules, veins, capillaries; the conduits for the transport of blood throughout the body.
BOIL - Hair-follicle infection that has spread to deeper tissues, producing a firm nodule containing pus.
BONE MARROW - The soft tissue within the bones; contains blood-forming elements--precursor cells of the red and white blood cells.
BRACHYCEPHALIC - Flat-faced; having a short wide head.
BRADYCARDIA - A slow heart rate.
BRONCHI - The larger air passages leading from the trachea and branching within the lungs.
BRONCHIOLES - Smaller branches of air passages leading from the bronchi to the alveoli [small air sacs in the lungs].
BRONCHOPNEUMONIA - Lung inflammation that begins in the bronchioles.
BULBOURETHRAL GLAND - Gland located on the male urethra that produces seminal fluid, which, when mixed with sperm, forms the ejaculate.
BUPHTHALMOS - Enlargement of the eye.
CALCULOGENIC - Stone forming.
CALCULUS [plural, CALCULI] - Dental tartar; urinary stone.
CALICIVIRUS - See feline calicivirus.
CALORIE - Unit defined as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius [centigrade]. However, the larger kilocalorie is usually referred to as a calorie in the nonscientific community.
CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI - A bacterium found in the intestines of animals.
CANCER - General term for a malignant tumor.
CANNULA - A tube used for insertion, often into a vessel.
CAPITULUM - Head.
CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITOR - A drug that blocks the enzyme that helps turn carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water.
CARBUNCLE - A deep skin infection containing many pockets of pus.
CARCINOGEN - A cancer-causing substance.
CARCINOMA - A cancer of epithelial cells.
CARDIAC TAMPONADE - Acute compression of the heart due to filling of the pericardial sac with fluid.
CARDIOMYOPATHY - Disease of the heart muscle, which may become weakened, thickened, or thinned and stretched.
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION [CPR] - First-aid technique to revive a patient who has no heartbeat or respiration.
CARTILAGE - A connective tissue important in bone growth and formation of joints.
CASTRATION - A surgical removal of the testes.
CASTS - Solid, tubular deposits in urine.
CATABOLISM - The body's breakdown of complex molecules, such as protein and fat, to simpler compounds.
CATARACT - Lens opacity in the eye.
CAUDAL - To the rear of; toward the tail.
CELLULAR DIFFERENTIATION - A process by which cells "mature" into fully functioning units.
CELLULITIS - Diffuse inflammation resulting from infection of deep connective tissue.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM [CNS] - The brain and spinal cord.
CENTRIFUGE - To spin in order to separate out the heavier particles in a fluid.
CEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA - Underdevelopment of the cerebellum, manifested by incoordination.
CEREBELLUM - Portion of the brain concerned with balance and coordination.
CEREBRUM - Portion of the brain concerned with conscious thought, perceptions, skills, and initiating movement.
CERUMINOUS GLANDS - Gland that produce the waxy coating of the ear canal.
CERVICAL SPONDYLOSIS - Degenerative and proliferate disease of the neck vertebrae.
CERVIX - Entrance to the uterus.
CESTODES - Tapeworms; a class of internal parasites characterized by production of segments.
CHEMICAL OXIDATION - Production of energy by the combination of a substance with oxygen.
CHEMOSIS - Excessive swelling of the conjunctiva [membrane covering the inner surface of the eyelids and white of the eyeball].
CHEYLETIELLOSIS - Infestation with the mite Cheyletiella blakei, Cheyletiella parasitivorax, or Cheyletiella yasguri
CHLAMYDIOSIS - A bacterial infection caused in cats by the genus Chlamydia psittaci.
CHLORAMPHENICOL - An antibacterial toxicity, can cause depression, diarrhea, anorexia, severe weight loss or anemia.
CHOLINE - B vitamin important in proper function of the nervous system and in fat metabolism in the liver.
CHORIORETINITIS - Inflammation of the choroid.
CHOROID - Layer in the back of the eye containing pigment and blood vessels.
CHRONIC - Long term; of lengthy duration; persisting over a long period.
CHRONIC CARRIER STATE - Situation in which an animal or human maintains [carries] an infection by a disease agent for a prolonged period of time.
CHRONIC INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS - Destruction of tissue within the kidney, marked by a reduction in size and by scarring of the kidneys.
CHYLE - Intestinal lymph; milky-looking, fat-containing fluid taken up from the intestine during digestion of food, and passed by the thoracic duct into the venous circulation.
CHYLOTHORAX - Accumulation of chyle in the chest cavity.
CILIARY VASCULAR CONGESTION - " Red eye", a condition involving blood vessel congestion within the eye.
CIRRHOSIS - Liver disease characterized by replacement of functioning tissue by scar tissue.
CO-FACTOR - A required constituent for enzymes involved in protein metabolism.
COITUS - Sexual intercourse.
COLITUS - Inflammation of the large bowel [colon].
COLLAGEN - Protein constituent of connective tissue.
COLOSTRUM - Milk produced during the first day or two after birth that is high in protein and antibodies, "first milk."
COMATOSE - Unconscious and unable to be aroused.
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT [CBC] - Number of red and white blood cells per unit of blood volume, the proportions of the different white cells, and the amount of hemoglobin.
COMPOUND FRACTURE - Fracture that breaks through the skin; open fracture.
CONCEPTUS - Embryo or fetus plus accompanying membranes.
CONCUSSION - Violent shock to the brain.
CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS - Birth defects.
CONGENITAL TESTICULAR HYPOPLASIA - Underdevelopment of the testicles.
CONJUNCTIVA - Membrane lining the eyelids and covering the white surface of the eyeball [sclera].
CONJUNCTIVITUS - Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE - Tissue that binds together and is the support of various structures of the body.
CONTAGIOUS STREPTOCOCCAL LYMPHADENTIS - "Strangles"; an inflammatory disease involving lymph nodes infected with streptococci.
CONTINUOUS POLYESTRUS - Reproductive cycles with no anestrous period noted in the fall and winter.
CONTRALATERAL - Opposite side.
CONTUSION - Bruise.
COOMBS' TEST - An immunologic procedure for the detection of antibody on red blood cells.
CORNEA - The thick transparent outer coat at the front of the eyeball.
CORNIFIED - Hardened.
CORONAVIRUS - A group of viruses, including one that causes feline infectious peritonitis in cats.
CORPUS LUTEUM - Ovarian follicle after discharge of the ovum or egg.
CORTEX - Outer region of the adrenal gland, brain, or kidney.
CORTICOID - Corticosteroid.
CORTICOSTEROIDS - Steroid hormones [e.g., cortisol and corticosterone, produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland]; corticosteroids elevate blood sugar, increase fat and protein breakdown, and have an anti-inflammatory effect on conditions such as arthritis and dermatitis.
CORTICOSTERONE - A corticosteroid hormone.
CORTISOL - A corticosteroid hormone.
CORTISONE - A corticosteroid found in small amounts in the adrenal cortex.
CRANIAL - Toward the head.
CRANIOSCHISIS - Failure of the roof of the skull to form.
CREPITUS - Sensation or sound of grating or scraping when fragments of fractured bone rub together.
CRYOGEN - The substance that produces extreme cold during cryosurgery.
CRYOSURGERY - A procedure by which a local application of intense cold [freezing] is used to damage and destroy tissue.
CRYPTORCHID - Having a condition wherein one, or both, of the testes is undescended or ectopic [under the skin in the groin in the abdominal cavity].
CUSHING'S SYNDROME - Hyperadrenocorticism; over activity of the adrenal glands.
CUTANEOUS HORNS - Projections of hardened skin.
CUTANEOUS HYPERESTHESIA - Increased sensitivity of the skin.
CUTEREBRIASIS - Penetration of Cuterebra fly larva beneath the skin.
CYANOCOBALAMIN - Vitamin B12.
CYANOSIS - Bluish discoloration of the skin from lack of blood oxygen.
CYCLOSPORIN - An immunosuppressive drug important in organ transplantation.
CYSTADENOMA - A benign tumor of cystic and glandular structures.
CYSTIC ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA - Exuberant overgrowth of uterine lining with formation of cysts.
CYSTIC RETE OVARII TUBULES - Meshwork of dilated ovarian tubules.
CYSTITIS - Inflammation of urinary bladder.
CYSTOLITH - A bladder stone [as in the urinary bladder or the gallbladder].
CYTODIFFERENTIATION - Formation of unique cell types.
CYTOKINES - Messenger molecules by which cells of the immune system signal and instruct one another; interleukin and gamma-interferon are examples.
CYTOLOGY - The microscopic examination of cells obtained by scraping, aspiration, or biopsy.
CYTOPLASM - The fluid and substances within a cell that surround the nucleus.
CYTOTOXIC - Toxic to cells [e.g., cytotoxic drugs to destroy tumor cells].
DEMENTIA - Mental deterioration.
DENDRITES - Short branching extensions from a nerve cell body.
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID [DNA] - A nucleic acid; genetic material.
DERMATOMYCOSIS - Fungal skin infection.
DERMATOPHYTOSIS - Ringworm.
DERMATOSIS - Any skin disease, especially one of noninflammatory origin.
DERMIS - Support structure beneath the epidermis or outer layer of the skin.
DESCEMETOCELE - Herniation of membrane at the back of the cornea.
DEXTROSE - A type of sugar; glucose.
DIABETES MELLITUS - Disease caused by insufficient insulin production by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, or inappropriate tissue response to insulin.
DIAPHRAGM - The large thin muscle used for breathing that separates the abdominal and chest cavities.
DICEPHALUS - Congenital malformation involving the development of two heads.
DIESTRUS - Interestrus; the quiescent period between one estrous period and the next.
DIGESTS - Extracts.
DIGITALIS - A drug that increases the strength of the heartbeat while decreasing the rate.
DIALATED FIXED PUPIL - Pupil that does not contract.
DIMELIA - Congenital duplication of a limb.
DIPROSOPUS - Congenital malformation involving duplication of the face.
DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION [DIC] - A bleeding disorder characterized by destruction of blood-clotting factors and resultant hemorrhage from blood failing to clot.
DISTAL - Farther from the origin, more distant.
DIURETIC - Agent that promotes urine production.
DOMINANT GENE - One capable of expressing its trait even when carried by only one member of a chromosome pair.
DORSAL - Pertaining to the back.
DUODENUM - First part of the small intestine.
DYSPLASIA - Abnormal development.
DYSPNEA - Difficulty breathing; labored breathing.
DYSTOCIA - Difficult birth.
ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY - Ultrasonic examination of the heart.
ECLAMPSIA - Milk fever; calcium deficiency in a lactating queen.
ECTOPARASITE - External parasite; fleas, ticks, and mites are examples.
ECTOPIC - Not in normal position.
ECTRODACTYLY - Congenital absence of all or part of a digit.
EDEMA - Presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces, usually under the skin; pulmonary edema is fluid in the lungs.
EDEMATOUS - Swollen with fluid.
EFFUSION - Fluid escaping into tissues or a body cavity.
ELASTIN - Protein found in elastic connective tissue.
ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY [EKG] - The process by which there is a graphic tracing of the electrical activity of the heart.
ELECTROLYTE - A molecule that dissociates into ions [atoms having a positive or negative charge due to the addition of subtraction of an electron] in solution.
ELISA - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a color-based test for the presence of either antibody or antigen.
EMBOLISM - Sudden blocking of an artery by a blood clot, fat or air.
EMPYEMA - Pyothorax; accumulation of pus in the chest cavity.
ENDOCARDIUM - A thin serous membrane that lines the cavities of the heart.
ENDOCRINOPATHIES - Hormonal disturbances.
ENDOGENOUS - From a source within the body.
ENDOMETRITIS - Inflammation of the lining of the uterus.
ENDOSCOPY - A procedure in which a small tube is inserted into an orifice in order to examine internal portions of a hollow organ.
ENDOSPORE - A type of spore produced in the spherule stage of the fungus Coccidioides immitis.
ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE - A plastic tube for breathing, inserted into the trachea during anesthesia.
ENTERIC - Of the small intestine.
ENTERITIS - Intestinal inflammation.
ENTROPION - Turning inward of an eyelid.
ENUCLEATION - Removal of an eye.
ENZOOTIC - A constantly present disease that is widespread but produces disease in relatively few animals.
ENZYMATICALLY - By means of enzymes.
ENZYME - One of a number of different protein substances produced in a cell; it is capable of accelerating one of the cell's various catalytic actions.
EOSIN - Rose-colored stain or dye.
EOSINOPHIL - Granular white blood cell that can be readily stained with eosin; functions in the allergic reaction and in the body's response to parasitic infections.
EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA COMPLEX - A disease of unknown [perhaps allergic] origin, characterized by the formation of lesions ranging from well-demarcated, linear, raised plaques on the thighs to erosions, ulcerations, and swellings on the lips, face and in the mouth; microscopically, eosinophils and cellular components of granulation tissue are seen.
EPICARDIUM - Layer of pericardium [serous membrane] on the outer surface of the heart.
EPIDERMIS - Outer layer of skin.
EPIDIDYMIS - Duct connecting the testis to the vas deferens.
EPILATION OF HAIRS - Removal of hairs by the roots.
EPINEPHRINE - Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla [the inner portion of the adrenal gland], which elevates blood glucose and increases blood pressure and cardiac output; also called adrenaline.
EPIPHORA - An overflow of tears.
EPISTAXIS - Bleeding from the nose.
EPITHELIALIZED - Having had new covering or surface grow back.
EPITHELIUM - Covering of the internal and external surfaces of the body.
EPIZOOTIC - An outbreak of a disease attacking many animals with many sick [high morbidity].
ERYSIPELOID - A deep skin infection caused by a specific bacterium.
ERYTHEMA - Redness.
ERYTHEMATOUS MACULE - A small red spot.
ERYTHEMATOUS PAPULE - A red bump.
ERYTHROCYTE - Red blood cell, the carrier of oxygen in the blood.
ERYTHROPOIETIN - Hormone, produced by the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production.
ESCHERICHIA COLI - A bacterium normally found in the digestive tract.
ESOPHAGUS - The muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach.
ESTRADIOL - Ovarian estrogen.
ESTRADIOL CYPIONATE [ECP] - An estrogen compound.
ESTROGEN - Female sex hormone that stimulates estrus.
ESTROUS CRY - Sound given by the queen to indicate that she is in heat and sexually receptive.
ESTROUS CYCLE - The reproductive pattern of the adult female cat, including proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus.
ESTRUS - "Heat"; a recurrent period of varying length, during which the female becomes sexually receptive to the male, and ovulates [releases egg from the ovary] if mated.
ETIOLOGY - Origin, cause.
EXCISING - Cutting out; surgical removal.
EXCORIATION - Abrasion, scratch.
EXENCEPHALY - Congenital defect in which the brain bulges through the skull.
EXOGENOUS - From a source outside the body.
EXOSTOSIS - Bony outgrowth.
EXTRACORPOREAL IMMUNOSORPTION - Plasmapheresis; procedure in which plasma extracted from blood is treated and then returned to the host.
EXTRAOCULAR - Outside the eye.
EXUDATE - Material [plasma, cells, cellular debris] deposited in tissues or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation.
FASCIA - Sheet of fibrous tissue that covers muscles or organs.
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS - Vitamins A, D, E, and K.
FEBRILE - Feverish.
FECAL CASTS - Black, comma shaped, one to two millimeter long granules of waste from adult fleas; "flea dirt."
FELIDAE - Taxonomic family name for cats.
FELINE CALICIVIRUS [FCV] - A virus that infects the feline respiratory system and oral cavity.
FELINE ENTERIC CORONAVIRUS [FECV] - A group of viruses that infect the intestinal tract.
FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS [FIV] - Previously called feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus [FTLV]; a virus that attacks the cat's immune system.
FELINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA - Feline haemobartonellosis; a rickettsial disease of the red blood cells.
FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS [FIP] - A coronavirus infection; a relatively uncommon disease of cats but virtually always fatal.
FELINE ISCHEMIC SYNDROME - Constricted or obstructed blood vessels in the brain.
FELINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS [FeLV] - The causative agent of the most important fatal infectious disease complex of American domestic cats today; directly or indirectly the cause of a number of feline diseases, among them lymphosarcoma [cancer of the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell].
FELINE LOWER URINARY TRACT DISEASE [FLUTD] - Formerly known as feline urologic syndrome [FUS], a complex spectrum of disorders affecting the lower urinary tract.
FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA [FP] - Feline infectious enteritis; feline "distemper"; feline ataxia or incoordination; a highly contagious viral disease of cats characterized by sudden onset, fever, inappetence, dehydration, depression, vomiting, decreased numbers of circulating white blood cells, and often a high mortality rate; caused by a parvovirus.
FELINE SARCOMA VIRUS [FeSV] - The causative agent of multiple fibrosarcomas [cancers of connective tissues] in young cats.
FELINE VIRAL RHINOTRACHEITIS [FVR] - Feline herpesvirus type 1 [FHV-1] infection; a respiratory disease.
FETAL RESORPTION - Disintegration of the fetus within the uterus.
FIBRIN - A protein component of a blood clot.
FIBRINOGEN - Clotting factor in the blood that is converted into fibrin.
FIBROSARCOMA - Malignant tumor of connective cells.
FIBROUS - Thickened; fiberlike.
FILAMENTOUS - Threadlike.
FLAGELLUM - Long, snakelike projection from a cell, used for locomotion.
FLEHMEN RESPONSE - Response [exposing the teeth by retracting the upper lip] elicited by the odor of urine.
FLUORESCEIN - A dye used to stain and demonstrate ulcerations of the cornea.
FOLACIN - Folic acid; a water-soluble vitamin.
FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE [FSH] - Hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates growth and maturation of ovarian follicles in the female and sperm production in the male.
FOLLICULITIS - Inflammation of hair follicles.
FRACTURE - Breaking of a bone.
FULMINANT - Sudden and severe.
FURUNCULOSIS - Boils.
GANGRENE - Death and decay of tissue, usually resulting from loss of blood supply.
GASTRULA - The early stage of a developing embryo that follows the blastula.
GENOME - The genetic information of an individual cell or virus.
GENOTYPE - The genetic makeup of a given trait.
GERIATRICS - The study of old age and aging.
GESTATION - The full period of pregnancy; period of development from fertilization of the ovum until birth; feline gestation lasts sixty-four to sixty-nine days, with an average of sixty-six days.
GIARDIA LAMBLIA - Protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract.
GINGIVITIS - Inflammation of the gums.
GLANS PENIS - The cap-shaped end of the penis.
GLOBE - The eyeball.
GLOMERULONEPHRITIS - A kidney disease that damages the glomerulus.
GLOMERULUS - One of many tiny tufts of blood vessels in the kidney that separate fluid and cellular components and through which the blood is filtered.
GLUCOCORTICOIDS - Corticosteroids that affect the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
GLYCOGEN - Animal starch.
GOITER - Enlarged thyroid gland.
GOITROUS - Pertaining to the goiter.
GONADAL HYPOPLASIA - Impaired development of the sex glands.
GONADOTROPINS - Hormones that stimulate the sex glands.
GONADS - Testes or ovaries; reproductive glands that produce sperm and ova [eggs] and the steroid hormones testosterone [testes] and progesterone and estrogen [ ovaries].
GRANULE - Small particle or grain.
GRANULOCYTE - Type of white blood cell, containing stainable granules.
GRANULOCYTIC LEUKEMIA - Cancer of granulocytes.
GRANULOMA - Lesion with chronic inflammatory response characterized by the accumulation of certain types of white blood cells around some infectious and noninfectious agents, for the purpose of walling off the agent from the rest of the body; may be microscopic in size or visible to the unaided eye as small nodular grains of tissue.
GRANULOSA CELL - Cell type that surrounds the ovarian follicle.
GRISEOFULVIN - Medication for ringworm.
GROSS APPEARANCE - Appearance as seen by the naked eye [ as opposed to microscopic appearance].
GROWTH HORMONE [GH] - Hormone produced by the pituitary gland; it influences growth.
GUARD HAIRS - Coarse, thick, straight hairs that taper to a fine tip.
HAIRBALLS - Entwined accumulation of ingested fur, resulting from self-washing behavior of cats.
HALITOSIS - Bad breath.
HARD PALATE - Bone and tissue separating the nasal cavity from the oral cavity.
HAW - Third eyelid in corner of the eye.
HELMINTHIC - Pertaining to parasitic worms.
HEMANGIOMA - Benign tumor of blood vessels.
HEMANGIOSARCOMA - Malignant tumor of blood vessels.
HEMATOCRIT - Percentage of red blood cells in whole blood.
HEMATOMA - Localized collection of blood, usually resulting from blood vessel breakage.
HEMATOPOIETIC - Blood-cell forming.
HEMIMELIA - Congenital absence of all or part of the distal portion of a limb.
HEMOGLOBIN - The oxygen-carrying pigment in red blood cells.
HEMOGRAM - Results of blood examination, including total and differential white blood cell counts and packed cell volume.
HEMOLYMPHATIC SYSTEM - The circulatory system and the lymphatic system together.
HEMORRHAGIC PUNCTUM - A small blood spot.
HEMOTHORAX - Blood in the chest cavity.
HEPARIN - An anticoagulant; it indirectly inhibits the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY - Neurological abnormalities secondary to liver failure.
HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS - Buildup of fat in the liver.
HEPATOMEGALY - Enlargement of the liver.
HERITABILITY - Capability of being inherited.
HERMAPHRODITISM - Presence of male and female sex organs.
HERNIA - Protrusion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening; rupture.
HERPESVIRUS - Feline rhinotracheitis virus, a respiratory pathogen.
HETEROSIS - Hybrid vigor; breed strength gained by crossbreeding.
HETEROZYGOUS - Having two different alleles at a given locus on paired chromosomes.
HISTAMINE - Substance that affects blood vessels, muscles, and the heart; responsible for many of the unpleasant effects of allergy.
HISTOLOGY - Study of tissue, involving microscopic examination.
HOMOGENEOUS - Uniform.
HOMOZYGOUS - Having the same two alleles at a given locus on a chromosome.
HORMONE - A chemical substance produced by an organ, which has a specific regulatory effect on the activity of some other organ.
HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPHIN [HCG] - Hormone produced by the placenta, which can stimulate ovulation in estrous queens.
HYDROCEPHALUS - Fluid accumulation within the brain.
HYDROMETRA - Collection of watery fluid within the uterus.
HYDROPHILIC - Water-attracting.
HYDROXYUREA - Anticancer drug that interferes with cellular DNA synthesis.
HYPER - A prefix meaning above or beyond; excessive.
HYPERADRENOCORTICISM - Cushing's syndrome; overactivity of the adrenal glands.
HYPERAMMONEMIA - High levels of ammonia in the blood.
HYPERESTROGENISM - Excessive secretion of estrogen.
HYPERPIGMENTATION - Darkening of the skin.
HYPERPLASIA - Overgrowth due to an increase in number of cells in a given tissue; compare to hypertrophy.
HYPERTENSION - Abnormally elevated blood pressure.
HYPERTHERMIA - Abnormally elevated body temperature.
HYPERTHYROIDISM - Overactivity of the thyroid gland.
HYPERTROPHY - Overgrowth due to an increase in the size of cells in a given tissue; compare to hyperplasia.
HYPERVISCOSITY - Thickening of the blood in certain disease states.
HYPO - A prefix meaning below or under; deficient.
HYPOADRENOCORTICISM - Addison's disease; insufficient secretion from the adrenal cortex.
HYPOGLYCEMIA - Low blood sugar.
HYPOKALEMIA - A low level of potassium in the blood.
HYPOLUTEOIDISM - Sterility in queens caused by the insufficient secretion of progesterone.
HYPOPLASIA - Underdevelopment of a give tissue.
HYPOPYON - Accumulation of white blood cells [pus] in the anterior chamber of the eye.
HYPOSENSITIZATION - "Allergy shots," intended to reduce an allergic individual's sensitivity to allergens.
HYPOSPADIAS - Congenital defect in males, in which the urethral opening develops on the underside of the penis or on the perineum.
HYPOTHALAMUS - Critical portion of the brain concerned with operation of much of the autonomic [unconscious] nervous system; production of certain hormones that are subsequently stored in the pituitary gland; and regulation of body temperature, sleep cycles, and food and water intake.
HYPOTHERMIA - Abnormally low body temperature.
HYPOTHYROIDISM - Decreased thyroid function.
HYPOTRICHOSIS - Sparse hair coat.
HYPOVOLEMIA - Decreased blood volume; can lead to shock.
HYPOXIA - Oxygen deprivation.
IDIOPATHIC - Of unknown cause.
IDIOPATHIC MEGACOLON - Massive enlargement or dilation of the colon; of unknown cause.
IMMUNE-MEDIATED DESTRUCTION - Damage caused by the response of the host's immune system to a disease agent, drug, or the body's own tissue.
IMMUNIZATION - The process whereby the immune system recognizes various foreign proteins or antigens and produces antibodies and immune cells against those antigens.
IMMUNOASSAY - Determination of the quantity of specific antigen in the serum; tests such as ELISA and immunofluorescence assay.
IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE ASSAY [IFA] - A fluorescent antibody test for the presence of antigen or antibody.
IMMUNOGLOBULIN - An antibody.
IMMUNOPOTENTIATOR - A substance with immune-boosting capabilities.
IMMUNOSUPPRESSED INDIVIDUALS - Those on immunosuppressive drug therapy or with diseases of the immune system.
IMMUNOTHERAPY - Boosting the immune response to assist in the treatment of a disease.
IMPETIGO - Skin pustules caused by bacteria.
INACTIVATED ["KILLED"] VACCINE - A vaccine in which the infectious agent had been treated in some way [usually by chemicals] so that it no longer can infect and replicate within the host.
INAPPETENCE - Lack of appetite.
INCLUSIONS - Anything that is enclosed within, as within a cell.
INGESTA - Ingested food.
INGUINAL - Between abdomen and thigh; in the groin.
INGUINAL RING - An opening deep within the groin for the passage of the spermatic cord.
INNERVATION - The distribution of nerves to a given tissue or body part.
IN SITU - At the site.
INTEGUMENT - The skin.
INTERESTRUS - Diestrus; the quiescent period between one estrus and the next.
INTERFERONS - Natural substances that can inhibit virus replication and also the growth of tumor cells.
INTERSEXUALITY - Having characteristics of both sexes present in the same individual.
INTERTRIGO - Skin fold dermatitis.
INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS - The cartilaginous structures between the vertebrae.
INTOXICATION - Poisoning.
INTRAMUSCULARLY [IM] - A route of injection [into the muscle].
INTRANASAL - Within the nasal passage.
INTRANASAL [IN] - A route of administration of a vaccine by instilling in the nasal passage.
INTRAVENOUS [IV] - Use of a vein to administer a substance or draw blood
INTRAVENOUS PYELOGRAM [IVP] - Radiograph of the urinary tract after injecting dye for visualization of structures
INTROMISSION - Insertion; as of the penis
INTUSSUSCEPTION - Prolapse ["telescoping"] of one section of the bowel into another
IN UTERO - In the uterus.
INVOLUTION - Return to normal size of the uterus after birth.
IONIZE - To separate into ions [charged atoms].
IONIZING RADIATION - Radiation capable of ionizing matter; examples are x-rays and radioactive isotopes of the elements radon, strontium, and cesium.
IRIDOCYTES - Cells that produce iridescence [lustrous, changing colors].
IXODID - Belonging to a family of hard-bodied ticks [hard ticks].
JEJUNUM - Middle portion of the small intestine.
KERATIN - An insoluble protein synthesized by cells within the skin; it is the principal component of skin, hair, and nails.
KERATITIS - Inflammation of the cornea.
KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA [KCS] - A lack of tears; dry eyes, dry cornea.
KERATOLYTIC - Able to cause softening and peeling of the outer layer of skin.
KETONES - By-products of fat metabolism. Ketone production is enhanced in some diabetic cats.
KILOCALORIE [KCAL] - Unit defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius [centigrade]; the "large" calorie; commonly called calorie, although technically the calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius. The kilocalorie is 1,000 of these small calories.
KILOGRAM - One thousand grams [2.2 pounds].
KNOTT'S TEST - Technique for staining microfilariae in a blood sample when testing for heartworm disease.
LACRIMAL GLAND - Tear gland.
LACTASE - Enzyme that breaks down lactose.
LACTATED RINGER'S SOLUTION - A sterile saltwater solution for injection that includes calcium, potassium, and sodium chloride and sodium lactate.
LACTOSE - Milk sugar.
LAPAROSCOPY - Visual inspection of the interior of the abdomen with an instrument.
LARVAE - Immature forms or stages in the life of parasites or insects.
LARYNX - Upper part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea; having cartilage walls and containing the vocal cords.
L-ASPARAGINASE - An enzyme that kills cancer cells by depleting their supply of the amino acid L-asparagine.
LECITHIN - A fatty acid-containing constituent of cell membranes.
LEUKOCYTES - While blood cells.
LEUKOPENIA - Decreased number of circulating white blood cells.
LEUKOTRICHIA - Whitening of the hair.
LICHENIFICATION - Leathery thickening of the outer layer of the skin.
LIGAMENT - Strengthening band of fibrous tissue, for stabilizing joint structure.
LIGATION - Binding or tying off.
LINOLEIC ACID - An essential fatty acid.
LIPID FILM - A component of the eye's tear film.
LIPOSARCOMA - Malignant tumor of the fat cells.
LOCHIA - Vaginal discharge that continues after giving birth.
LOCUS [plural, LOCI] - Position on the chromosome where a specific gene is located.
LORDOSIS - Downward curvature of the lumbar spine [swayback].
LUMBOSACRAL - Pertaining to the lower back.
LUMEN - Interior or cavity in a tube or tubular organ.
LUTEAL PHASE - Period during which the ovarian follicle converts to corpus luteum and secretes progesterone.
LUTEINIZATION - Conversion of ovarian follicle to a corpus luteum.
LUTEINIZING HORMONE [LH] - Hormone produced by the pituitary gland, which assists in causing ovulation and in production of estrogen by the cells of the ovary.
LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE [LH-RH] - Hormone released from the hypothalamus in the brain, which triggers the release of luteinizing hormone.
LUXATION - Dislocation.
LYMPH - Clear fluid, derived from the tissues, which contains proteins and large molecular particles.
LYMPHADENITIS - Inflammation of lymph nodes.
LYMPHADENOPATHY - Enlargement of lymph nodes.
LYMPH NODE ASPIRATE - Sample drawn through a needle from a lymph node.
LYMPHOCYTE - A type of white blood cell capable of responding immunologically to the presence of foreign material.
LYMPHOID CELL - Lymphocyte and plasma cell.
LYMPHOMA - Cancer of lymphoid tissue.
LYMPHOSARCOMA [LSA] - Cancer of lymphocytes. Term often used interchangeably with lymphoma.
MACROPHAGE - A specialized white blood cell that engulfs and processes antigens such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, or toxins.
MALIGNANT - Capable of spreading; refers to tumors.
MANDIBLE - Lower jaw.
MAST CELL - A connective tissue cell that is involved in development of allergy.
MASTITIS - Inflammation of the mammary gland.
MATRIX - Intercellular substance of a tissue [as of bone cartilage]; in urinary stones and plugs, the matrix is the mucoprotein base or ground substance.
MAXILLOFACIAL COMPRESSION - Shortening of the lower and upper jaw.
MEDIASTINUM - Median partition separating the two lungs.
MEDULLA - Inner part of the kidney or adrenal gland; part of the brain stem.
MEGAKARYOCYTE - Giant cell of bone marrow that breaks into platelets.
MEGESTROL ACETATE [OVABAN] - A synthetic progesterin.
MELANIN - Skin pigment.
MELANOCYTES - Cells producing the skin pigment melanin.
MELANOMA - Tumor of pigmented skin cells.
MELANOTRICHIA - Darkening of the hair.
MENINGES - Protective covering surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
MENINGIOMA - Most common tumor of the feline central nervous system; arises from meninges.
MESENTERIC -Of the mesentery, a membrane covering the abdominal organs and attaching them to the body wall.
METABOLISM - All life-sustaining chemical processes in the body; the conversion of nutrients into energy.
METABOLITES - Products of metabolism.
METASTASIS - Spread of a malignant tumor to other sites.
METESTRUS - The period of subsiding follicular function following estrus.
METHIONINE - A sulfur-containing amino acid.
METRITIS - Inflammation of the uterus.
MICROBE - Any microscopic living organism, but especially one capable of causing disease.
MICROFILAREMIA - Presence of microfilariae in the blood.
MICROFILARIA - Minute larval stage of the heart-worm.
MICROPHTHALMIA [MICROPHTHALMOS] - Congenital smallness of one or both eyes.
MICROVASCULATURE - The smallest blood vessels [capillaries].
MILIARY DERMATITIS - Miliary eczema; small red, crusty skin lesions.
MINERALOCORTICOIDS - Corticosteroids that affect the regulation of electrolyte and water balance.
MIOTIC - A drug that causes the pupil to contract.
MODIFIED-LIVE VIRUS [MLV] - Attenuated [altered] virus that no longer produces clinical disease; used as a vaccine.
MONOCYTE - White blood cell capable of responding to the presence of foreign material.
MORPHOGENESIS - The development of form and shape in an organism.
MORPHOLOGY - Form and structure.
MOTILE - Capable of movement.
MOTILITY - Ability to move.
MUCOID - Mucuslike.
MUCOMETRA - Mucus in the uterus.
MUCOSAL-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE [MALT] - Lymphoid tissue associated with the lining of the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital tracts.
MUCOUS MEMBRANES - Linings of the interior portions of the body that secrete mucus.
MUCUS - Substance produced by the mucous membranes, containing various secretions, salts, and cells.
MUTATION - A genetic change.
MYCETOMA - General term for a fungus-induced, tumorlike skin lesion.
MYCOBACTERIUM - A genus of bacteria, members of which are responsible for tuberculosis and leprosy.
MYCOLOGY - A study of fungi.
MYDRIATIC - A drug that dilates the pupil.
MYELIN - Fatty substance forming the outer tunic or sheath around many nerve cells.
MYELOGENOUS - Produced in the bone marrow.
MYELOPATHY - Any degenerative disorder of the spinal cord.
MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS - Heterogeneous group of tumors or tumor-like diseases involving cells of the bone marrow.
MYIASIS - Infestation of the body by fly maggots.
MYOCARDIAL DISEASE - Any disease of the heart muscle.
MYOCARDIUM - The muscle layer of the heart.
NASOPHARYNX - Back of the throat, above the soft palate.
NECROPSY - Autopsy; examination of a dead animal.
NECROSIS - Cell death.
NECROTIC - Composed of dead cells.
NECROTIZING - Causing cell death.
NEGRI BODIES - Intracellular inclusion bodies found in brain cells of animals or humans with rabies.
NEMATODE - General term for a roundworm.
NEONATAL - Newborn.
NEOPLASIA - Uncontrolled, progressive proliferation of cells under conditions that normally should be restrictive of cell growth; cancer.
NEOPLASM - Tumor; new growth.
NEOVASCULARIZATION - New blood vessel in-growth.
NEPETA CATARIA - The catnip plant.
NEPETALACTONE - The primary constituent of catnip.
NEPHRITIS - Inflammation of the kidney.
NEPHROLITH - Gravel or mineral deposit in the kidney; kidney stone.
NEURON - An individual nerve cell.
NEURULA - An early stage of embryonic development.
NEUTROPHIL - A type of white blood cell important in destroying bacteria.
NEVUS [plural NEVI] - A mole; pigment spot.
NIACIN - Nicotinic acid, a vitamin of the B complex.
NIT - Louse egg.
NOCARDIA - Genus of bacteria commonly found in soil.
NUCLEIC ACIDS - The genetic material; deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] and ribonucleic acid [RNA].
NULLIPAROUS - Having never given birth.
NYSTAGMUS - Involuntary, rapid eye movement, most often horizontal.
OCCLUDE - To close off or obstruct.
OCCLUSION - A blockage; relation of the upper and lower teeth when in contact.
OCULAR DISEASE - Any disease of the eye.
OCULOCUTANEOUS ALBINISM - Absence of pigmentation in the iris, skin, and retina.
OMNIVORE - An organism that eats both plant and animal matter.
OMPHALOPHLEBITIS - Navel ill; infection of the veins of the umbilical cord.
ONCOGENESIS - Tumor causation.
OOCYST - An encapsulated ovum [egg] of a sporozoan parasite, such as Toxoplasma gondii.
OOCYTE - Developing egg cell in the female.
OPACITY - An opaque area or spot.
OPTIC CHIASM - Location where portions of the two optic nerves cross over each other to the opposite side of the brain.
OPTIC DISK - The portion of the optic nerve visible at the surface of the retina.
ORGAN OF CORTI - The organ of hearing within the inner ear.
ORGANOGENESIS - The third stage of embryonic development, in which the organs begin to form.
ORGANOPHOSPHATE - Compounds containing carbon and phosphorus, which are highly toxic to cats.
OROPHARYNX - Back of the mouth; tonsillar area, between the soft palate and the epiglottis.
OSSICLES - The small bones within the ear.
OSTEOBLAST - A bone-forming cell.
OSTEOMALACIA - Disease characterized by softening of bones.
OSTEOMYELITIS - Infection of the bones, with pus formation.
OSTEOPOROSIS - Thinning and weakening of the bone.
OTITIS EXTERNA - Inflammation of the outer ear.
OTITIS INTERNA - Inflammation of the inner ear.
OTITIS MEDIA - Inflammation of the middle ear.
OVARIAN FOLLICLE - The ovum [egg] and its surrounding cells.
OVARIECTOMY - Removal of an ovary or ovaries.
OVARIOHYSTERECTOMY - Spay; surgical removal of the uterus and ovaries.
OVULATE - To release an egg from the ovary.
OVUM [plural, OVA] - Egg.
OXYTOCIN - A pituitary hormone formed in the brain; it stimulates uterine contraction and is of therapeutic value in certain cases of dystocia [difficult birth].
PALPATE - To examine with the hand and fingers.
PANCYTOPENIA - Condition in which red cells, white cells, and platelets are all decreased in number; deficiency of all cell elements of the blood.
PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS - See feline panleukopenia.
PAPULE - Tiny, solid elevation in the skin.
PAPULOCRUSTOUS - Characterized by crusty elevations in the skin.
PAPULOPUSTULAR DERMATITIS - Inflammatory skin disease characterized by the presence of pus-filled elevations.
PARASITE - Organism that finds its food source by living in or on a host animal, often to the detriment of the host.
PARASITEMIA - Presence of a parasite in the blood stream.
PARASITISM - Any parasite infestation or infection.
PARATHYROID GLANDS - Two small pairs of endocrine glands located adjacent to the thyroid glands; they are important in regulation of calcium and phosphorus balance.
PARATHYROID HORMONE [PTH] - Hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body.
PARIETAL PLEURA - Membrane that forms the lining of the chest cavity.
PARONYCHIA - Pus-forming infection of the nail bed.
PARTURITION - The act of labor; birth.
PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA - Common bacterium found in the feline mouth and upper respiratory tract.
PATELLAR LUXATION - Displacement of the kneecap.
PATENT - Open.
PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS [PDA] - Abnormal persistence of the embryonic blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery to the aorta.
PATHOGEN - Organism capable of producing disease.
PATHOGENESIS - Mechanism of development of a disease.
PATHOGENICITY - Relative ability of an organism to produce disease.
PEDICLE - A small stalk or stem.
PEDUNCULATED - On a stalk.
PEPTIDE - A short chain of amino acids.
PERCUTANEOUS NEEDLE BIOPSY - Method by which a sample of organ tissue is obtained by passing a biopsy needle through the skin.
PERICARDIUM - Membranous sac that surrounds the heart.
PERINEAL URETHROSTOMY - Surgical removal of the penis and widening of the urethral opening, to relieve urinary blockage in male cats.
PERINEUM - Region around the anus and genitalia.
PERIOCULAR LEUKOTRICHIA - "Goggles," condition wherein hair grows in lighter around the eyes.
PERIODONTITIS - Inflammation of the tissue surrounding a tooth.
PERIORBIT - Eye socket, including the surrounding tissues.
PERIOSTEUM - Membranelike tissue covering a bone.
PERITONITIS - Inflammation of the lining of the abdomen.
pH - Measure of the acidity/alkalinity of a solution.
PHAGOCYTIC CELLS - Cells from blood and tissue that surround and ingest foreign material.
PHAGOCITIZE - To surround and ingest material [said of cells].
PHARYNX - Area extending from the back of the nasal passage to the larynx and the esophagus.
PHENOLS - Toxic compounds derived from coal tar.
PHENOTYPE - Visible, physical expression of a genetic trait.
PHEROMONE - An odorous secretion that elicits a specific response in another individual of the same species.
PHOCOMELIA - Developmental abnormality in which the upper part of the limb is absent and the paws are attached to the trunk by a small, abnormally formed bone; "seal-limb."
PHOTOPERIOD - Period of daylight or artificial light.
PHOTOPHOBIA - Hypersensitivity to light.
PHTHISIS BULBI - Shrinking or wasting of the eyeball.
PHYCOMYCOSIS - Disease caused by a number of specific fungi, especially Rhizopus, Absidia, and Mucor.
PHYSIOLOGY - The study of body functions.
PICOGRAM - One trillionth of a gram.
PILOCARPINE - A drug that stimulates constriction of the pupils and decreases intraocular pressure.
PILOERECTION - Reflex by which the hair "stands" on end.
PINNA - External ear; auricle.
PITUITARY GLAND - Endocrine gland at the base of the brain; secretes hormones that control other endocrine glands.
PLAGUE - Severe, life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
PLASMA - Fluid portion of the blood [as opposed to the cellular portion].
PLASMA CELLS - Cells that make antibodies.
PLASMAPHERESIS - Extracorporeal immunosorption procedure in which extracted plasma is treated and then returned to the host.
PLATELET - Blood cell fragment involved in blood clotting.
PLEURA - Membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the chest cavity.
PLEURAL EFFUSION - The accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity in the chest.
PNEUMONITIS - Inflammation of the lungs.
PNEUMOTHORAX - Accumulation of air in the pleural cavity, outside the lungs.
POLYDACTYLY - Congenital abnormality characterized by the presence of extra digits [toes].
POLYDIPSIA - Excessive thirst.
POLYHEDRAL - Having many sides.
POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTE - Type of white blood cell; neutrophil.
POLYP - Protruding growth on the surface of a mucous membrane.
POLYPEPTIDE - Molecule containing many amino acids.
POLYURIA - Excessive urination.
PORTOCAVAL SHUNT - Abnormal persistence or development of a blood vessel within or near the liver, which allows blood from the intestine to bypass the liver.
POSTERIOR PARESIS - Partial paralysis of a hind limb or limbs.
PREAURICULAR ALOPECIA - Absence of hair on the side of the head in front of the ear, normal in many breeds of cats.
PREGNANT MARE'S SERUM GONADOTROPHIN [PMSG] - Sexual stimulation hormone; a series of doses given intramuscularly can induce estrus in queens.
PREPUBERTAL - Pertaining to the period before sexual maturity.
PREPUCE - Fold of skin covering the penis.
PROESTRUS - The period before estrus.
PROGESTERONE - Hormone secreted by the corpus luteum, adrenal cortex, and placenta, to prepare the uterus for pregnancy.
PROGESTIN - Progesterone.
PROGESTOGEN - Any compound with progesterone-like activity.
PROGNOSIS - Outlook as to the outcome.
PROLACTIN - Hormone produce by the pituitary gland that stimulates and sustains lactation.
PROLAPSE - To fall or slip out of place.
PROLAPSE OF THE THIRD EYELID - Condition wherein the third eyelid partially occludes the eye.
PROPTOSIS - Bulging or protrusion of the eyeball.
PROTEOLYTIC - Protein-splitting.
PROTHROMBIN TIME - One measure of the clotting ability of the blood.
PROTOPLASM - The clear fluid within plant and animal cells.
PROTOZOA - Simple organisms that are usually composed of a single cell; some are capable of producing disease in animals and humans.
PRURITUS - Itching.
PSEUDOCOPROSTASIS - False fecal impaction.
PSEUDOPREGNANCY - A condition wherein the queen shows signs of pregnancy after a non-fertile mating.
PTYALISM - Excessive drooling.
PULMONARY EDEMA - Buildup of excess fluid in the lungs.
PULMONARY EMBOLISM - A detached clot from elsewhere occluding a vessel within the lung.
PUNNETT SQUARE - Checkerboard diagram for delineating possible outcomes of mating two individuals with defined genetic characteristics.
PURULENT - Puslike.
PUSTULAR - Pimply.
PUTREFACTIVE - Refers to decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms.
PYELONEPHRITIS - Infection of the kidney and the kidney pelvis.
PYLORUS - Terminal part of the stomach, connecting with the duodenum.
PYOGENIC - Pus-forming.
PYOMETRA - Accumulation of pus within the uterus.
PYOMETRITIS - Purulent inflammation of the uterus.
PYOTHORAX - Empyema; accumulation of pus in the chest cavity.
PYRIDOXINE - Vitamin B6
QUEEN - Breeding female cat.
RAPID EYE MOVEMENT [REM] - Type of eye movement during dreaming.
RECESSIVE GENE - A gene that can be expressed only when both members of a chromosome pair contain the same allele.
RECOMBINATION - Genetic exchange.
REDUCTION - Setting of a fracture.
REFLEX OVULATOR - Animal species in which ova are released only in response to mating; an example is the cat.
REGURGITATION - Involuntary return of ingested food to the mouth; differs from vomiting in that it is a passive process [i.e., unaccompanied by reflex, propulsive movements].
RENIN - Hormone produced by the kidneys that influences blood pressure.
RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM - Hormone-enzyme system that influences blood pressure by stimulating contraction of blood vessels.
RESORB - Biochemical dissolution of substances or cells; resorption; see fetal resorption.
RETINOL - Vitamin A.
RETROVIRUS - Virus of the family Retroviridae; examples are feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus.
REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE - Enzyme important in replication of certain viruses, such as the retroviruses.
RHINOTRACHEITIS - See feline viral rhinotracheitis.
RIBOFLAVIN - Vitamin B2
RIBONUCLEIC ACID [RNA] - A nucleic acid occurring in all cells and involved in protein synthesis.
RICKETTSIA - A genus of microorganisms transmitted to animals and man by lice, fleas, ticks, and mites; a specialized bacterium; a species of this genus causes Haemobartonellosis in cats.
SALMONELLA - Common genus of bacteria responsible for a spectrum of maladies ranging from intestinal disease to life-threatening systemic illness.
SARCOMA - General term for cancer of connective tissue cells [those cells within an organ or structure that bind it together and support it].
SCABIES - A specific skin mite infestation.
SCAPULA - Shoulder blade.
SCHIZONT - A development stage of certain protozoa.
SCLERA - White outer covering of the eyeball.
SCLEROTIC - Hardened.
SCROTUM - Pouch of skin containing the testes.
SEASONALLY POLYESTROUS - Experiencing estrous cycles during one part of the year [usually February through October for cats in the Northern Hemisphere].
SEBACEOUS GLAND - Small skin gland, attached to the hair follicle, that secretes sebum.
SEBORRHEA SICCA - Dry, scaly dermatitis; dandruff.
SEBUM - Thick, semi-fluid substance composed of fat and cellular debris, secreted by the sebaceous glands in the skin.
SEMINAL FLUID - A milky white secretion from the prostate and bulbourethral glands of the male.
SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES - Small channels in the testes wherein sperm develop.
SEPTIC ARTHRITIS - Inflammation of the joints caused by an infectious agent.
SEPTICEMIA - Bacterial blood poisoning; presence of bacteria in the blood stream, accompanied by signs of disease.
SEROLOGY - The use of antigen-antibody reactions to detect antigens and antibodies in serum.
SEROUS MEMBRANE - A lining tissue that produces a watery secretion.
SERUM - Blood plasma minus the clotting factor fibrinogen; the clear liquid that remains after the blood clots; adjectival form is "serous."
SERUM ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE [SAP] - An enzyme present in serum that is produced in many tissues but is of greatest diagnostic significance in diseases of the liver and bone.
SIGN - A characteristic of a disease; signs are seen by observation, and symptoms are characteristics reported by the patient.
SINOATRIAL [SA] NODE - Structure located at the junction of the right atrium of the heart and the vena cava; it is the heart's natural pacemaker.
SINUS HAIRS - Specialized tactile hairs on the cat, found on the muzzle, above the eyes, and on the underside of the forelegs.
SOFT PALATE - Soft, fleshy posterior part of the partition separating the nasal and oral cavities.
SOLAR DERMATITIS - Actinic dermatitis; inflammation of skin induced by sunlight.
SPERMATOZOA - Sperm.
SPHERULE - Parasitic stage of the fungus Coccidiodes immitis, formed during the organism's growth phase in host tissue.
SPINA BIFIDA - Broad term that includes all failures of the vertebrae to close normally around the spinal cord.
SPLEEN - Abdominal organ that filters senescent [aging] red blood cells and foreign material from the blood, and serves to store red blood cells.
SPLENECTOMY - Surgical removal of the spleen.
SPONTANEOUS OVULATOR - Animal species in which ova are released periodically, regardless of whether sexual intercourse has occurred.
SPORE - Thick-walled resting stage, formed by certain bacteria during unfavorable environmental conditions; it germinates quickly when favorable conditions have been restored, to produce a new generation.
SPRAIN - Injury to a joint involving damage to one or more ligaments without ligament rupture.
SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA - A type of skin cancer arising from surface cells.
STAPHYLOCOCCUS - A bacterial genus important in skin infections and other pus-producing processes.
STEATITIS - Yellow fat disease; disease wherein a yellow-pigmented substance is deposited in body fat; the result of a vitamin E deficiency.
STENOSIS - A constriction or narrowing.
STEROID - A common term for corticosteroid; sex hormones also belong to the steroid group; anabolic steroids promote growth and tissue repair.
STOMATITIS - Inflammation of the lining of the oral cavity.
STRABISMUS - Affected individuals are referred to as cross-eyed.
STRANGLES - Contagious streptococcal lymphadenitis; a respiratory disease caused by streptococci.
STRANGULATED - Congested because of constriction.
STREPTOCOCCUS - A bacterial genus, some species of which are of importance in abscesses and other pus-producing processes.
STRONGYLOIDES - A genus of threadworm; small parasitic worms.
STRUVITE - Magnesium-ammonium-phosphate crystals that form in the urinary tract, causing irritation and/or blockage; also called triple phosphate crystals.
STUD TAIL - Excessive oil production by the supracaudal organ of the cat.
SUBCUTANEOUS - Beneath the skin.
SUBCUTANEOUSLY [SC] - A route of injection [under the skin].
SUBCUTIS - Layer beneath the dermis and epidermis of the skin, composed of fatty tissues and fibers.
SUBINVOLUTION - Partial involution [return to normal size], as of the uterus after birthing.
SUBMANDIBULAR - Under the lower jaw.
SUCROSE - Table sugar.
SUPERFECUNDATION - Fertilization of ova by separate matings during one ovulatory cycle; thus a litter of kittens may have more than one father.
SUPERFETATION Fertilization of an ovum occurring during a different ovulatory cycle, when a fetus is already present in the uterus.
SUPPURATIVE - Producing pus.
SUPERACAUDAL ORGAN - Preen gland; large oil glands along the top of the tail.
SUTURE - A surgical stitch.
SYNAPSE - The site at which one neuron connects with another.
SYNDACTYLY - Congenital abnormality wherein adjacent toes are fused.
SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS [SLE] - Rare multisystemic autoimmune disease.
TAIL HEAD - Place where the tail joins the body.
TAPETUM LUCIDUM - Specialized reflective layer beneath the retina; makes cats' eyes shine in the dark.
TAURINE - An amino acid essential for cats; required for proper development and functioning of the retina and heart.
TELOGEN HAIRS - Hairs in the resting stage of the hair growth cycle.
TEMPORAL REGION - Area of the head in front of the ears.
TENDON - Fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone.
TERATOGEN - Any infectious agent or chemical that disrupts normal fetal development.
TERATOLOGY - The study of abnormal development and congenital malformations.
TESTOSTERONE - Male sex hormone, produced in the testes.
TETANY - Rigid muscle spasms.
THALMUS - Portion of the brain that serves as a conduit for sensory information coming from the rest of the body and for nerve impulses concerned with balance and coordination, arising from the cerebellum.
THERIOGENOLOGY - The study of reproduction.
THIAMINASE - An enzyme that destroys thiamine.
THIAMINE - Vitamin B1
THORACIC - Pertaining to the chest.
THORACOCENTESIS - Procedure wherein a needle is inserted into the chest cavity to remove accumulated air or fluid.
THROMBOPLASTIN - A protein essential to the formation of blood clots.
THROMBOSIS - Formation of a blood clot [thrombus].
THYMUS - Lymphoid organ located in the chest that regulates the maturation of specialized lymphocytes known as T cells.
THYROIDECTOMY - Removal of the thyroid gland.
THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE [TSH] - Hormone produce by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3]
THYROXINE [T4] - One of two hormones secreted by the thyroid gland that help to regulate the overall cellular metabolism of the body.
TITER - A quantitative measure of the concentration of an antibody or antigen in blood serum.
TOCOPHEROL - Vitamin E.
TOXEMIA - Presence of toxins in the blood, accompanied by signs of disease.
TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS - Skin condition in which redness and peeling occur over the entire body surface.
TOXOCARA CATI - The cat roundworm, an internal parasite.
TOXOPLASMOSIS - A protozoal disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.
TRACHEA - The windpipe, which is a tube descending from the larynx and branching at the lower end into two bronchi that enter the lungs.
TRACHEOSTOMY - Surgically created opening in the trachea through the skin of the neck.
TRANSPLACENTALLY - Across the placenta.
TRANSPORT MEDIUM - Material for preserving a specimen until it reaches the laboratory.
TRANSTRACHEAL WASH - Flushing of material from the trachea and bronchi for diagnostic purposes, by needle puncture and aspiration through the tracheal wall.
TREMATODES - Flukes.
TRICHINOSIS - A parasitic disease contracted by eating meat [especially pork] that has not been thoroughly cooked.
TRIIODOTHYRONINE [T3] - One of two hormones secreted by the thyroid gland that help to regulate the overall cellular metabolism of the body.
TULAREMIA - A plaguelike disease mainly affecting rodents; caused by Francisella tularensis.
TURBINATES - Rolled bony structures within the nose that filter, warm, and humidify the inhaled air.
ULTRASONOGRAPHY - Ultrasound; study of the body's interior by means of sonar echoes.
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION - Radiation beyond the violet region of the spectrum; can induce sunburn.
UNICORNUAL UTERINE TORSION - Twisting of one uterine horn.
UNTHRIFTY - Unkempt in appearance and failing to thrive.
URETER - A tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
URETEROLITH - A stone in a ureter.
URETHRA - A tube that carries urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body.
URETHRAL PLUG - Soft, paste-like, compressible substance blocking the urethra.
URETHROLITH - A stone in the urethra.
URETHROSTOMY - See perineal urethrostomy.
URINALYSIS - Series of physical and chemical tests that aid in the diagnosis of urinary tract disorders.
URINARY CALCULUS [plural, CALCULI] - Stone in the urinary tract.
UROLITHIASIS - Formation of urinary stones; disease associated with presence of urinary stones.
URTICARIA - Hives.
UTERINE TUBES - Fallopian tubes.
UTERINE INVERSION - Uterine prolapse; inside-out uterus protruding through the cervix.
UTERUS UNICORNIS - Uterus having only one uterine horn.
UVEA - Layer within the eye that contains the iris, blood vessels, and choroid.
VAGINITIS - Inflammation of the vagina.
VAGINOSCOPIC - By means of visual inspection of the vagina with a speculum.
VALERIC ACID - Substance present in the vaginal secretions of estrous females; stimulates a reaction in the tomcat.
VASCULAR RING DEFECT - Abnormal retention of embryonic blood vessels in the region of the aorta.
VASCULARIZATION - Formation of blood vessels.
VASCULITIS - Inflammation of a blood vessel.
VAS DEFERENS - A tube that carries sperm from the testis to the urethra.
VASODILATION - Dilation of a blood vessel.
VENTRAL - Toward the belly surface.
VENTRICLE - One of the two lower chambers of the heart.
VENULE - Small vein.
VESICLE - Blister.
VESICULAR - Fluid-filled.
VESTIBULAR SYNDROME - Incoordination and imbalance related to the inner ear.
VILLI [singular, VILLUS] - Fingerlike projections lining the interior of the small intestine.
VIREMIA - Presence of virus in the blood stream.
VIRILIZING - Producing male characteristics.
VIRULENCE - Disease-producing capacity.
VIRULENCE FACTOR - Any factor that enhances the ability of a pathogen to infect and damage tissue.
VIRUS ISOLATION - Growth of a virus artificially in the laboratory.
VISCERA - The large interior organs of the body.
VISCERAL LARVA MIGRANS - Disease in human beings usually caused by the dog roundworm Toxocara canis, and very rarely by the cat roundworm Toxocara cati.
VISCERAL PLEURA - Membrane that covers the surface of the organs in the chest.
VITREOUS HUMOR - Fluid within the posterior portion of the eyeball.
VULVA - Entrance of the vagina.
WHOLE-BODY HYPERTHEMIA - Anticancer procedure in which the core body temperature of a patient is raised.
ZOONOTIC - Of a disease having the capacity to spread between animals and man.
ZYGOTE - Fertilized ovum.
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