In this simulation, the initial three-dimensional spiral wave becomes more complex due to differences in wave speed relative to the orientation of cardiac muscle fibers. Waves propagate about three times faster along cardiac fibers than across fibers. The fibers are oriented roughly parallel to the top and bottom surfaces, with a primary axis that rotates 120 degrees over the depth.
To begin the animation, press Start. Checking the Loop box allows the animation to replay continuously. Different views can be selected from the list at the left. The top surface is transparent while the bottom surface is opaque. Checking the Rotate(z) box causes the animation to rotate continuously while the animation plays. The slab also can be rotated, zoomed, or panned directly using the mouse.
Fenton F, Karma A. Fiber-induced vortex turbulence in thick myocardium. Phys Rev Lett 1998; 81: 481-484.
Rappel WJ. Filament instability and rotational tissue anisotropy: A numerical study using detailed cardiac models. Chaos 2001; 11: 71-80.
Fenton FH, Cherry EM, Hastings HM, Evans SJ. Multiple mechansims of spiral wave breakup in a model of cardiac electrical activity. Chaos 2002; 12: 852-892.