Beau resting 

Estimated Breeding Values (EBVs)
for hip and elbow scores


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Orthopedic Foundation for Animals' database

The hip scores and pedigrees used to generate these breeding values were found in the public part of the OFA database. The OFA is acknowledged for accumulation of radiographic data for over 40 years. The OFA hip scores and pedigrees of these dogs in the database were used for the genetic evaluation. Hip radiographs were taken by a veterinarian with the dog in the hip-extended, supine position according to the American Veterinary Medical Association guidelines and were mailed to the OFA by the owner. The radiographs were independently evaluated by 3 randomly selected board-certified radiologists from a pool of 20-25 with concordance rates averaging 74% over 1.8 million radiographs. For hip dysplasia, dogs were scored into seven categories: excellent, good, fair, borderline, mild, moderate and severe hip dysplasia. The first three categories (excellent, good and fair) are generally considered “normal” dogs although they will carry some of the mutations that contribute to hip dysplasia. The last three categories (mild, moderate and severe) are considered “dysplastic” dogs. For elbow dysplasia, there is a category of normal or unaffected and three categories of worsening elbow dysplasia as evidenced by increasing severity of radiographic osteoarthritis. The development of this breeding value web site was made based on our careful evaluation of the public OFA data base for about 95% of the pure breed dogs in the registry. This analysis was undertaken independently of the OFA. Further details on the breeds and the scoring criterion can be found in the accompanying published paper. Images of dogs with good and poor (dysplastic) hip conformation can be found here. A computed tomographic slice through the elbow of a dog with fragmented medial coronoid process (part of the elbow dysplasia syndrome) can also be found here.