Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences
Associate Professor of Practice
Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences
Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine
Ithaca, NY 14853
I am interested in pursuing health-related research that has direct relevance to the conservation of wildlife, particularly carnivores and scavengers. This includes approaches to understand how endangered species are impacted at a population level by infectious disease (such as canine distemper virus in free-ranging Amur tigers), as well non-infectious agents (such as the pharmaceutical diclofenac in Asian vultures). Health processes can also impact predator populations indirectly, in circumstances where disease influences the availability of prey resources. In each of these situations disease processes must be understood at a landscape scale, whether through the epidemiology of multi-host pathogens operating across the domestic-wild interface, or through the social drivers that influence the use of toxic compounds in the environment. The road to addressing these issues begins in the field, and requires a multi-disciplinary approach, drawing on a diversity of skills that includes (but is not limited to): ecology, pathology, clinical medicine, molecular biology, microbiology, toxicology, population modeling, spatial analytics, sociology and ultimately policy. By fostering such collaborative partnerships we gain a more complete understanding of wildlife health issues, creating a platform to identify practical measures to mitigate the conservation impact on species in the wild.
- PhD, Comparative Medicine. University of Glasgow, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences Sep ’12 – Sep ‘16
- Masters of Research, Comparative Medicine. University of Glasgow, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences Sep ’11 – Aug ’12
- Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (B.V.M.S.) University of Glasgow, Faculty of Veterinary Science Oct ’92 – Jun ’99
- Bachelor of Science (honors) - Zoology University of Glasgow, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences Oct ’94 – Jun ’96
Summary of Experience
- Seventeen years of experience working as a field veterinarian, wildlife biologist and programme manager in diverse cultures in Asia, Africa, Central America, the Arctic and Australia.
- Conceptualized, secured funding and completed PhD research to understand and manage canine distemper virus as a threat to Amur tigers in the Russian Far East.
- Led field investigations into catastrophic vulture mortalities in Pakistan that resulted in the finding that veterinary use of the drug diclofenac was responsible for the region-wide collapse of vulture populations.
- Seven years building a regional field veterinary programme encompassing projects in five Asian countries, directly managing four expatriate veterinarians and an administrator, and with responsibility for ten national full time staff.
- Experienced in interaction with national governments, multi-laterals (FAO, OIE), and research bodies.
Accomplished in grant writing and management of multiple projects under federal, corporate and private donors (funding in excess of US $1M in 2010).
- Dec’16 – Present Senior Research Associate, Cornell University.
- Apr’14 – Oct’16 Carnivore Health Specialist, Wildlife Conservation Society.
- Jul ’11 – Mar ‘14 MCEIRS Project (WCS-PI ), Wildlife Conservation Society.
- Jan ‘08 – Jun ‘11 Associate Director – Asia, Global Health Program, Wildlife Conservation Society.
- Aug ’04 – Dec ’07 Assistant Field Veterinarian – Asia, Field Veterinary Program, Wildlife Conservation Society.
- Dec ’00 – Aug ’04 Field Veterinarian, Asian Vulture Crisis Project, The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, United States.
- Sep ’00 – Dec ’00 Veterinarian, Kanyana Wildlife Hospital and Captive Breeding Centre, Perth, Western Australia.
- Jul ’00 – Sep ’00 Assistant Bird Manager, SANCCOB, Treasure Oil Spill, Cape Town, South Africa.
- Aug ’99 – Mar ’00 Field Veterinarian/Biologist, The Peregrine Fund, Madagascar.
Sulikhan, N. S., M. Gilbert, E. Y. Blidchenko, S. V. Naidenko, G. V. Ivanchuk, T. Yu. Gorpenchenko, M. V. Alshinetskiy, E. I. Shevtsova, J. M. Goodrich, J. C. M. Lewis, M. S. Goncharuk, O. V. Uphyrkina, V. V. Rozhnov, S. V. Shedko, D. McAloose, D. G. Miquelle, T. A Seimon .2018. Canine distemper virus in a wild Far Eastern leopard Panthera pardus orientalis. Journal of Wildlife Disease 54(1):170-174.
- Richards, N. L. , M. Gilbert, M. Taggart, V. Naidoo. 2017. A Cautionary Tale: Diclofenac and Its Profound Impact on Vultures. In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. Elsevier. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.09990-5.
- Ostrowski, S., M. Gilbert. 2017. Early disease risk control in free-ranging snow leopards taken into captivity. Cat News. 65:21-23..
- Gilbert, M., B. Buuveibaatar, A. E. Fine, L. Jambal, and S. Strindberg. 2016. Declining breeding populations of white-naped cranes in Eastern Mongolia, a ten-year update. Bird Conservation International 26:490–504.
- Ostrowski, S., and M. Gilbert. 2016. Diseases of free-ranging snow leopards and primary prey species. Pages 97–112 in T. McCarthy and D. Mallon, editors. Snow leopards of the World. First Edit. Elsevier, London, United Kingdom.
- Seimon, T. A., M. Gilbert, S. Neabore, C. Hollinger, A. Tomaszewicz, A. Newton, T. Chang, and D. McAloose. 2016. Avian Hemosporidian parasite lineages in four species of free-ranging migratory water birds from Mongolia, 2008. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 52:2015-11–311.
- Petrunenko, Y. K., I. L. Polkovnikov, M. Gilbert, and D. G. Miquelle. 2016. First recorded case of tiger killing Eurasian lynx. European Journal of Wildlife Research 62:373–375.
- Greatorex, Z. F., S. H. Olson, S. Singhalath, S. Silithammavong, K. Khammavong, A. E. Fine, W. Weisman, B. Douangngeun, W. Theppangna, L. Keatts, M. Gilbert, W. B. Karesh, T. Hansel, S. Zimicki, K. O’Rourke, D. O. Joly, and J. A. K. Mazet. 2016. Wildlife trade and human health in Lao PDR: an assessment of the zoonotic disease risk in markets. PloS ONE 11:e0150666.
- Gilbert, M., S. Soutrina, I. Seryodkin, N. Sulikhan, O. V. Uphyrkina, M. Goncharuk, L. Matthews, S. Cleaveland, and D. G. Miquelle. 2015. Canine distemper virus as a threat to wild tigers in Russia and across their range. Integrative Zoology 10:329–343.
- Logan, N., E. McMonagle, A. A. Drew, E. Takahashi, M. McDonald, M. D. Baron, M. Gilbert, S. Cleaveland, D. T. Haydon, M. J. Hosie, and B. J. Willett. 2015. Efficient generation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-pseudotypes bearing morbilliviral glycoproteins and their use in quantifying virus neutralising antibodies. Vaccine 34:814–822.
- Mendenhall, I. H., K. N. Yaung, P. H. Joyner, L. Keatts, S. Borthwick, E. S. Neves, S. San, M. Gilbert, and G. J. Smith. 2015. Detection of a novel astrovirus from a black-naped monarch (Hypothymis azurea) in Cambodia. Virology Journal 12:182.
- Gilbert, M., D. G. Miquelle, J. M. Goodrich, R. Reeve, S. Cleaveland, L. Matthews, and D. O. Joly. 2014. Estimating the potential impact of canine distemper virus on the Amur tiger population (Panthera tigris altaica) in Russia. PLoS ONE 9:e110811.
- Gilbert, M., B. F. Koel, T. M. Bestebroer, N. S. Lewis, D. J. Smith, and R. A. M. Fouchier. 2014. Serological evidence for non-lethal exposures of Mongolian wild birds to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus. PLoS ONE 9:e113569.
- Gilbert, M., R. Tingay, L. Jambal, N. Sureda, C. Gilbert, B. Davaasuren, and G. Sundev. 2014. Distribution and status of the Pallas’s Fish Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus in Mongolia: a cause for conservation concern? Bird Conservation International 24:379–388.
- Gilbert, M. 2014. Diclofenac and vulture populations. Veterinary Record 174:562.
- Margalida, A., G. Bogliani, C. G. R. Bowden, J. A. Donazar, F. Genero, M. Gilbert, W. B. Karesh, R. Kock, J. Lubroth, J. Vaarten, L. Yon, T. Kuiken, and R. E. Green. 2014. One Health approach to use of veterinary pharmaceuticals. SCIENCE 346:1296–8.
- Olson, S. H., J. Parmley, C. Soos, M. Gilbert, N. Latorre-Margalef, J. S. Hall, P. M. Hansbro, F. Leighton, V. Munster, and D. Joly. 2014. Sampling Strategies and Biodiversity of Influenza A Subtypes in Wild Birds. PLoS ONE 9:e90826.
- Olson, S. H., M. Gilbert, M. C. Cheng, J. A. K. Mazet, and D. O. Joly. 2013. Prevalence and distribution of avian influenza virus A (H7N9) among wild birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19:2031–2033.
- Gilbert, M., L. Jambal, W. B. Karesh, A. Fine, E. Shiilegdamba, P. Dulam, R. Sodnomdarjaa, K. Ganzorig, D. Batchuluun, N. Tseveenmyadag, P. Bolortuya, C. J. Cardona, C. Y. H. Leung, J. S. M. Peiris, E. Spackman, D. E. Swayne, and D. O. Joly. 2012. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia. PLoS ONE 7:e44097.
- Gilbert, M., D. Bickford, L. Clark, A. Johnson, P. H. Joyner, L. Ogg Keatts, K. Khammavong, L. Nguyễn Văn, A. Newton, T. P. W. Seow, S. Roberton, S. Silithammavong, S. Singhalath, A. Yang, and T. A. Seimon. 2012. Amphibian pathogens in Southeast Asian frog trade. EcoHealth 9:9(4):386-98.
- Gilbert, M., C. Sokha, P. H. Joyner, R. L. Thomson, and C. Poole. 2012. Characterizing the trade of wild birds for merit release in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and associated risks to health and ecology. Biological Conservation 153:10–16.
- Gilbert, M., and J. Philippa. 2012. Avian influenza H5N1 virus: epidemiology in wild birds, zoo outbreaks, and zoo vaccination policy. Pages 343–348 in R. E. Miller and M. E. Fowler, editors. Fowler’s zoo and wild animal medicine, Volume 7: current therapy. Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis.
- Ishtiaq, F., M. Gilbert, J. Brown, P. Joyner, R. Sodnomdarjaa, M. P. Luttrell, D. Stallknecht, and D. O. Joly. 2012. Antibodies to influenza A virus in wild birds across Mongolia, 2006 – 2009. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48:768–775.
- Thinh, T. V., M. Gilbert, N. Bunpapong, A. Amonsin, D. T. Nguyen, P. F. Doherty, and K. P. Huyvaert. 2012. Avian influenza viruses in wild land birds in northern Vietnam. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48:195–200.
- Clements, T., M. Gilbert, H. J. Rainey, R. Cuthbert, J. C. Eames, P. Bunnat, S. Teak, S. Chansocheat, and T. Setha. 2012. Vultures in Cambodia: population, threats and conservation. Bird Conservation International 23:7–24.
- Chu, D. K. W., C. Y. H. Leung, H. K. K. Perera, E. M. Ng, M. Gilbert, P. H. Joyner, A. Grioni, G. Ades, Y. Guan, J. S. M. Peiris, and L. L. M. Poon. 2012. A novel group of avian astroviruses in wild aquatic birds. Journal of Virology 86:13772–8.
- Chu, D. K. W., C. Y. H. Leung, M. Gilbert, P. H. Joyner, E. M. Ng, T. M. Tse, Y. Guan, J. S. M. Peiris, and L. L. M. Poon. 2011. Avian coronavirus in wild aquatic birds. Journal of Virology 85:12815–20.
- Pérez, G. E., K. a. Hobson, E. J. Garde, and M. Gilbert. 2010. Deuterium (δD) in Feathers of Mongolian Waterbirds Uncovers Migratory Movements. Waterbirds 33:438–443.
- Gilbert, M. 2010. New Guinea harpy eagle. Pages 33–39in R. E. Tingay and T. E. Katzner, editors. The Eagle Watchers. First Edit. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.
- Spackman, E., D. E. Swayne, M. Gilbert, D. O. Joly, W. B. Karesh, D. L. Suarez, R. Sodnomdarjaa, P. Dulam, and C. Cardona. 2009. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007. Virology Journal 6.
- Newman, S. H., S. A. Iverson, J. Y. Takekawa, M. Gilbert, D. J. Prosser, N. Batbayar, T. Natsagdorj, and D. C. Douglas. 2009. Migration of whooper swans and outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Eastern Asia. PLoS ONE 4:e5729.
- Pain, D. J., C. G. R. Bowden, A. A. Cunningham, R. Cuthbert, D. Das, M. Gilbert, R. D. Jakati, Y. Jhala, A. A. Khan, V. Naidoo, J. Lindsay Oaks, J. Parry-Jones, V. Prakash, A. Rahmani, S. P. Ranade, H. Sagar Baral, K. Ram Senacha, S. Saravanan, N. Shah, G. Swan, D. Swarup, M. A. Taggart, R. T. Watson, M. Z. Virani, K. Wolter, and R. E. Green. 2008. The race to prevent the extinction of South Asian vultures. Bird Conservation International 18:S30--S48.
- Watson, R. T., M. Gilbert, and M. Virani. 2008. Neck-drooping posture of Oriental White-backed Vultures (Gyps bengalensis) in close proximity to human observers. Journal of Raptor Research 42:66–67.
- Kim, J. K., P. Seiler, H. L. Forrest, A. M. Khalenkov, J. Franks, M. Kumar, W. B. Karesh, M. Gilbert, R. Sodnomdarjaa, B. Douangngeun, E. A. Govorkova, and R. G. Webster. 2008. Pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy of different clades of Asian H5N1 avian influenza A viruses in domestic ducks. Journal of Virology 82:11374–11382.
- Tingay, R. E., N. Sureda, and M. Gilbert. 2008. Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) foraging behavior in Mongolia: A combined use of diversionary and covert ambush tactics? Journal of Raptor Research 141:2403–2409.
- Johnson, J. A., M. Gilbert, M. Z. Virani, M. Asim, and D. P. Mindell. 2008. Temporal genetic analysis of the critically endangered Oriental white-backed vulture in Pakistan. Biological Conservation doi:10.101.
- Gilbert, M., R. T. Watson, S. Ahmed, M. Asim, and J. A. Johnson. 2007. Vulture restaurants and their role in reducing diclofenac exposure in Asian vultures. Bird Conservation International 17:63–77.
- Gilbert, M., R. T. Watson, M. Z. Virani, J. L. Oaks, S. Ahmed, M. J. I. Chaudhry, M. Arshad, S. Mahmood, A. Ali, and A. A. Khan. 2007. Neck-drooping posture in oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis): An unsuccessful predictor of mortality and its probable role in thermoregulation. Journal of Raptor Research 41:35–40.
- Karesh, W. B., R. A. Cook, M. Gilbert, and J. Newcomb. 2007. Implications of wildlife trade on the movement of avian influenza and other infectious diseases. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43:S55--S59.
- Gilbert, M., R. T. Watson, M. Z. Virani, J. L. Oaks, S. Ahmed, M. J. I. Chaudhry, M. Arshad, S. Mahmood, A. Ali, and A. A. Khan. 2006. Rapid population declines and mortality clusters in three Oriental white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis colonies in Pakistan due to diclofenac poisoning. Oryx 40:388–399.
- Gilbert, M., and S. Chansocheat. 2006. Olfaction in Accipitrid vultures. Vulture News 55:6–7.
- Gilbert, M., S. Chansocheat, and N. Sureda. 2006. First record of Himalayan griffon vulture Gyps himalyensis in Chhep, Preah Vihea, northern Cambodia. Vulture News 55:4–5.
- Meteyer, C. U., B. A. Rideout, M. Gilbert, H. L. Shivaprasad, and J. L. Oaks. 2005. Pathology and proposed pathophysiology of diclofenac poisoning in free-living and experimentally exposed Oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41:707–716.
- Oaks, J. L., M. Gilbert, M. Z. Virani, R. T. Watson, C. U. Meteyer, B. A. Rideout, H. L. Shivaprasad, S. Ahmed, M. J. Chaudhry, M. Arshad, S. Mahmood, A. Ali, and A. A. Khan. 2004. Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 427:630–633.
- Gilbert, M., J. L. Oaks, M. Z. Virani, R. T. Watson, S. Ahmed, M. J. I. Chaudhry, M. Arshad, S. Mahmood, A. Ali, R. M. Khattak, A. A. Khan. 2004. The status and decline of vultures in the provinces of Punjab and Sind, Pakistan: a 2003 update. Pages 221-234 in R. D. Chancellor, and B. U. Meyburg editors. Raptors Worldwide WWGBP/MME. Budapest, Hungary.
- Green, R. E., I. Newton, S. Shultz, A. A. Cunningham, M. Gilbert, D. J. Pain, and V. Prakash. 2004. Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines across the Indian subcontinent. Journal of Applied Ecology 41:793–800.
- Oaks, J. L., S. L. Donahoe, F. R. Rurangirwa, B. A. Rideout, M. Gilbert, and M. Z. Virani. 2004. Identification of a novel Mycoplasma species from an Oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis). Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42:5909–5912.
- Watson, R. T., M. Gilbert, J. L. Oaks, and M. Virani. 2004. The collapse of vulture populations in South Asia. Biodiversity 5:3–7.
- Oaks, J. L., C. U. Meteyer, B. A. Rideout, H. L. Shivaprasad, M. Gilbert, M. Z. Virani, R. T. Watson, and A. A. Khan. 2004. Diagnostic investigation of vulture mortality: the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is associated with visceral gout. Falco 24:13–14.
- Oaks, J. L., C. U. Meteyer, B. A. Rideout, H. . Shivaprasad, M. Gilbert, M. Virani, R. T. Watson, and A. A. Khan. 2004. Diagnostic investigation of vulture mortality: the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is associated with visceral gout. Pages 241–243in R. D. Chancellor and B. U. Meyburg, editors. Raptors Worldwide WWGBP/MME. Budapest, Hungary.
- Virani, M. Z., P. C. Benson, M. Gilbert, and S. Thomsett. 2004. A survey of the reproductive activities at some Gyps vulture nests in Kanha, Bandhavgarh and Ranthambhore National Parks, India, in the 2002-2003 breeding season. Pages 263–268in R. D. Chancellor and B. U. Meyburg, editors. Raptors Worldwide WWGBP/MME. Budapest, Hungary.
- Sarrazin, F., M. Z. Virani, M. Gilbert, and A. A. Khan. 2004. Preliminary population viability analyses for Oriental white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Pages 257–262in R. D. Chancellor and B. U. Meyburg, editors. Raptors Worldwide WWGBP/MME. Budapest, Hungary.
- Gilbert, M. 2004. On a wing and a prayer. BBC Wildlife Magazine 22(4): 37-39.
- Riley, J., J. L. Oaks, and M. Gilbert. 2003. Raillietiella trachea n. sp., a Pentastomid from the trachea of an Oriental white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis taken in Pakistan, with speculation about its life-cycle. Systematic Parasitology 56:155–161.
- Gilbert, M., M. Z. Virani, R. T. Watson, J. L. Oaks, P. C. Benson, A. A. Khan, S. Ahmed, J. Chaudhry, M. Arshad, S. Mahmood, and Q. A. Shah. 2002. Breeding and mortality of Oriental white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Bird Conservation International 12:311–326.
- Gilbert, M. 2002. Vulture Shock. BBC Wildlife Magazine 20(4): 58-60.
- Gilbert, M., and R. E. Tingay. 2001. Predation of a fat-tailed dwarf lemur Cheirogaleus medius by a Madagascar harrier-hawk Polyboroides radiatus: an incidental observation. Lemur News 6:6.
- Tingay, R. E., and M. Gilbert. 2000. Behaviour of banded kestrel Falco zoniventris in western Madagascar: a possible foraging association with sickle-billed vanga Falculea palliata. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 7:111–113.
- Tingay, R. E., and M. Gilbert. 1999. Annotated list of the birds of lakes Soamalipo, Befotaka and Ankerika (’Three Lakes’) and surrounding Tsimembo Forest, western Madagascar. Working Group on Birds in the Madagascar Region Newsletter 9:26–30.