Martin Gilbert

Martin Gilbert

Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences

Associate Professor of Practice


Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences
Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine
Ithaca, NY 14853


Research Interest

I am interested in pursuing health-related research that has direct relevance to the conservation of wildlife, particularly carnivores and scavengers. This includes approaches to understand how endangered species are impacted at a population level by infectious disease (such as canine distemper virus in free-ranging Amur tigers), as well non-infectious agents (such as the pharmaceutical diclofenac in Asian vultures). Health processes can also impact predator populations indirectly, in circumstances where disease influences the availability of prey resources. In each of these situations disease processes must be understood at a landscape scale, whether through the epidemiology of multi-host pathogens operating across the domestic-wild interface, or through the social drivers that influence the use of toxic compounds in the environment. The road to addressing these issues begins in the field, and requires a multi-disciplinary approach, drawing on a diversity of skills that includes (but is not limited to): ecology, pathology, clinical medicine, molecular biology, microbiology, toxicology, population modeling, spatial analytics, sociology and ultimately policy. By fostering such collaborative partnerships we gain a more complete understanding of wildlife health issues, creating a platform to identify practical measures to mitigate the conservation impact on species in the wild.


  • PhD, Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, 2016
  • Masters of Research, Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, 2012
  • Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (B.V.M.S.) University of Glasgow, Faculty of Veterinary Science, 1999 
  • Bachelor of Science (honors) - Zoology University of Glasgow, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, 1996

Biography/Professional Experience

Summary of Experience

  • More than two decades of experience working as a field veterinarian, wildlife biologist and programme manager in diverse cultures in Asia, Africa, Central America, the Arctic and Australia.
  • Conceptualized, secured funding and completed PhD research to understand and manage canine distemper virus as a threat to Amur tigers in the Russian Far East.
  • Led field investigations into catastrophic vulture mortalities in Pakistan that resulted in the finding that veterinary use of the drug diclofenac was responsible for the region-wide collapse of vulture populations.
  • Seven years building a regional field veterinary programme encompassing projects in five Asian countries, directly managing four expatriate veterinarians and an administrator, and with responsibility for ten national full time staff.
  • Experienced in interaction with national governments, multi-laterals (FAO, OIE), and research bodies.
  • Accomplished in grant writing and management of multiple projects under federal, corporate and private donors (funding in excess of US $1M in 2010).


  • 2022 - Present, Present Professor of Practice, Cornell University
  • 2016 - 2021, Senior Research Associate, Cornell University
  • 2014 - 2016, Carnivore Health Specialist, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • 2011 - 2014, MCEIRS Project (WCS-PI), Wildlife Conservation Society
  • 2008 - 2011, Associate Director, Asia, Global Health Program, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • 2004 - 2007, Assistant Field Veterinarian, Asia, Field Veterinary Program, Wildlife Conservation Society
  • 2000 - 2004, Field Veterinarian, Asian Vulture Crisis Project, The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, United States
  • 9/2000 – 12/2000, Veterinarian, Kanyana Wildlife Hospital and Captive Breeding Centre, Perth, Western Australia
  • 7/2000 – 9/2000 Assistant Bird Manager, SANCCOB, Treasure Oil Spill, Cape Town, South Africa
  • 1999-2000, Field Veterinarian/Biologist, The Peregrine Fund, Madagascar


  1. Gilbert, M., Dvornicky-Raymond, Z., Bodgener, J., 2023. Disease threats to tigers and their prey. Front. Ecol. Evol. 11.

  2. Bodgener, J., Sadaula, A., Thapa, P.J., Shrestha, B.K., Gairhe, K.P., Subedi, S., Rijal, K.R., Pandey, P., Joshi, J.D., Kandel, P., Lamichane, B.R., Pokheral, C.P., Subedi, N., Kandel, R.C., Luitel, H., Techakriengkrai, N., Gilbert, M., 2023. Canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris) and leopards (P. pardus) in Nepal. Pathogens 12, 203.

  3. McDermott, I., Gilbert, M., Shah, M.K., Sadaula, A., Anderson, N.E., 2023. Seroprevalence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in the free-roaming dog (Canis familiaris) population surrounding Chitwan National Park, Nepal. PLoS One 18, e0281542.

  4. Pathak, A., Hsu, Y.-C., Sadaula, A., Prasad Gairhe, K., Chandra Kandel, R., Gilbert, M., Paudel, P., 2022. Reduced genetic diversity in greater one-horned rhinoceros in Chitwan National Park A new challenge and opportunity for rhino conservation in Nepal. J. Biol. Stud. 5, 693–704.

  5. Armstrong, E.E., Khan, A., Taylor, R.W., Gouy, A., Greenbaum, G., Thiéry, A., Kang, J.T.L., Redondo, S.A., Prost, S., Barsh, G., Kaelin, C., Phalke, S., Chugani, A., Gilbert, M., Miquelle, D., Zachariah, A., Borthakur, U., Reddy, A., Louis, E., Ryder, O.A., Jhala, Y. V, Petrov, D., Excoffier, L., Hadly, E., Ramakrishnan, U., 2021. Recent evolutionary history of tigers highlights contrasting roles of genetic drift and selection. Mol. Biol. Evol. 38, 2366–2379.

  6. Mulia, B.H., Mariya, S., Bodgener, J., Iskandriati, D., Liwa, S.R., Sumampau, T., Manansang, J., Darusman, H.S., Osofsky, S.A., Gilbert, M., 2021. Exposure of wild Sumatran tiger to canine distemper virus. J. Wildl. Dis. 57, 464–466.

  7. Phuentshok, Y., Choden, K., Alvarez Rojas, C.A., Deplazes, P., Wangdi, S., Gyeltshen, K., Rinzin, K., Thapa, N.K., Tenzinla, T., Dorjee, D., Valitutto, M., Gilbert, M., Siriaroonrat, B., Jairak, W., Piewbang, C., Sharma, P., Dema, T., Gurung, R.B., 2021. Cerebral cysticercosis in a wild Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) in Bhutan: A first report in non-domestic felids. Int. J. Parasitol. Parasites Wildl. 14, 150–156.

  8. Gilbert, M., Sulikhan, N., Uphyrkina, O., Goncharuk, M., Kerley, L., Hernandez Castro, E., Reeve, R., Seimon, T., McAloose, D., Seryodkin, I. V, Naidenko, S. V, Davis, C.A., Wilkie, G.S., Vattipally, S.B., Adamson, W.E., Hinds, C., Thomson, E.C., Willett, B.J., Hosie, M.J., Logan, N., McDonald, M., Ossiboff, R.J., Shevtsova, E.I., Belyakin, S., Yurlova, A.A., Osofsky, S.A., Miquelle, D.G., Matthews, L., Cleaveland, S., 2020. Distemper, extinction, and vaccination of the Amur tiger. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 117, 31954–31962.

  9. Fine, A.E., Pruvot, M., Benfield, C.T.O., Caron, A., Cattoli, G., Chardonnet, P., Dioli, M., Dulu, T., Gilbert, M., Kock, R., Lubroth, J., Mariner, J.C., Ostrowski, S., Parida, S., Fereidouni, S., Shiilegdamba, E., Sleeman, J.M., Schulz, C., Soula, J.-J., der Stede, Y., Tekola, B.G., Walzer, C., Zuther, S., Njeumi, F., Meeting Participants, 2020. Eradication of peste des petits ruminants virus and the wildlife-livestock interface. Front. Vet. Sci. 7, 50.

  10. Huong, N.Q., Nga, N.T.T., Long, N. Van, Luu, B.D., Latinne, A., Pruvot, M., Phuong, N.T., Quang, L.T.V., Hung, V. Van, Lan, N.T., Hoa, N.T., Minh, P.Q., Diep, N.T., Tung, N., Ky, V.D., Roberton, S.I., Thuy, H.B., Long, N. Van, Gilbert, M., Wicker, L., Mazet, J.A.K., Johnson, C.K., Goldstein, T., Tremeau-Bravard, A., Ontiveros, V., Joly, D.O., Walzer, C., Fine, A.E., Olson, S.H., 2020. Coronavirus testing indicates transmission risk increases along wildlife supply chains for human consumption in Viet Nam, 2013-2014. PLoS One 15, e0237129.

  11. Lewis, J., Tomlinson, A., Gilbert, M., Alshinetski, M., Arzhanova, T., Goncharuk, M., Goodrich, J., Kerley, L., Korotkova, I., Miquelle, D., Naidenko, S., Sulikhan, N., Uphyrkina, O., 2020. Assessing the health risks of reintroduction: The example of the Amur leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 67, 1177–1188.

  12. McIver, D.J., Silithammavong, S., Theppangna, W., Gillis, A., Douangngeun, B., Khammavong, K., Singhalath, S., Duong, V., Buchy, P., Olson, S.H., Keatts, L., Fine, A.E., Greatorex, Z., Gilbert, M., LeBreton, M., Saylors, K., Joly, D.O., Rubin, E.M., Lange, C.E., 2020. Coronavirus surveillance of wildlife in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic detects viral RNA in rodents. Arch. Virol. 165, 1869–1875.

  13. Black, W., Troyer, R.M., Coutu, J., Wong, K., Wolff, P., Gilbert, M., Yuan, J., Wise, A.G., Wang, S., Xu, D., Kiupel, M., Maes, R.K., Bildfell, R., Jin, L., 2019. Identification of gammaherpesvirus infection in free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus). Virus Res. 259, 46–53.

  14. Zhu, H., Damdinjav, B., Gonzalez, G., Patrono, V.L., Parr, A., Hammond, T.-A., Shiilegdamba, E., Leung, C., Peiris, M., Marshall, J.F., Hughes, J., Gilbert, M., Murcia, P.R., 2019. Absence of adaptive evolution is the main barrier against influenza emergence in horses in Asia despite frequent virus interspecies transmission from wild birds. PLoS Pathog. 15, e1007531.

  15. Gilbert, M., 2018. Techniques for vaccinating wildlife, in: Miller, E., Lamberski, N., Calle, P.P. (Eds.), Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Volume 9: Current Therapy. Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, Missouri, pp. 299–305.

  16. Blidchenko, E.Y., Shevtsova, E.I., Vitkalova, A. V., Sonin, P.L., Kuzmenko, V.B., Matyukhina, D.S., Gilbert, M., Alshinetskiy, M. V., Naidenko, S. V., Miquelle, D.G., 2018. Two Amur leopards come into captivity in Russia in 2015. Cat News 67, 15–17.

  17. Sulikhan, N.S., Gilbert, M., Blidchenko, E.Y., Naidenko, S. V., Ivanchuk, G. V., Gorpenchenko, T.Y., Alshinetskiy, M. V., Shevtsova, E.I., Goodrich, J.M., Lewis, J.C.M., Goncharuk, M.S., Uphyrkina, O. V., Rozhnov, V. V., Shedko, S. V., McAloose, D., Miquelle, D.G., Seimon, T.A., 2018. Canine distemper virus in a wild Far Eastern leopard Panthera pardus orientalis. J. Wildl. Dis. 54, 170–174.

  18. Ostrowski, S., Gilbert, M., 2017. Early disease risk control in free-ranging snow leopards taken into captivity. Cat News 65, 21–23.

  19. Richards, N.L., Gilbert, M., Taggart, M., Naidoo, V., 2017. A cautionary tale: diclofenac and its profound impact on vultures, in: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences. Elsevier.

  20. Gilbert, M., Buuveibaatar, B., Fine, A.E., Jambal, L., Strindberg, S., 2016. Declining breeding populations of white-naped cranes in Eastern Mongolia, a ten-year update. Bird Conserv. Int. 26, 490-504.

  21. Greatorex, Z.F., Olson, S.H., Singhalath, S., Silithammavong, S., Khammavong, K., Fine, A.E., Weisman, W., Douangngeun, B., Theppangna, W., Keatts, L., Gilbert, M., Karesh, W.B., Hansel, T., Zimicki, S., O’Rourke, K., Joly, D.O., Mazet, J.A.K., 2016. Wildlife trade and human health in Lao PDR: an assessment of the zoonotic disease risk in markets. PLoS One 11, e0150666.

  22. Logan, N., McMonagle, E., Drew, A.A., Takahashi, E., McDonald, M., Baron, M.D., Gilbert, M., Cleaveland, S., Haydon, D.T., Hosie, M.J., Willett, B.J., 2016. Efficient generation of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-pseudotypes bearing morbilliviral glycoproteins and their use in quantifying virus neutralising antibodies. Vaccine 34, 814–822.

  23. Ostrowski, S., Gilbert, M., 2016. Diseases of free-ranging snow leopards and primary prey species., in: McCarthy, T., Mallon, D. (Eds.), Snow Leopards of the World. Elsevier, London, United Kingdom, pp. 97–112.

  24. Petrunenko, Y.K., Polkovnikov, I.L., Gilbert, M., Miquelle, D.G., 2016. First recorded case of tiger killing Eurasian lynx. Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 62, 373–375.

  25. Seimon, T.A., Gilbert, M., Neabore, S., Hollinger, C., Tomaszewicz, A., Newton, A., Chang, T., McAloose, D., 2016. Avian Hemosporidian parasite lineages in four species of free-ranging migratory water birds from Mongolia, 2008. J. Wildl. Dis. 52, 2015-11–311.

  26. Gilbert, M., Soutrina, S., Seryodkin, I., Sulikhan, N., Uphyrkina, O. V., Goncharuk, M., Matthews, L., Cleaveland, S., Miquelle, D.G., 2015. Canine distemper virus as a threat to wild tigers in Russia and across their range. Integr. Zool. 10, 329–343.

  27. Mendenhall, I.H., Yaung, K.N., Joyner, P.H., Keatts, L., Borthwick, S., Neves, E.S., San, S., Gilbert, M., Smith, G.J., 2015. Detection of a novel astrovirus from a black-naped monarch (Hypothymis azurea) in Cambodia. Virol. J. 12, 182.

  28. Gilbert, M., Koel, B.F., Bestebroer, T.M., Lewis, N.S., Smith, D.J., Fouchier, R.A.M., 2014. Serological evidence for non-lethal exposures of Mongolian wild birds to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus. PLoS One 9, e113569.

  29. Gilbert, M., Miquelle, D.G., Goodrich, J.M., Reeve, R., Cleaveland, S., Matthews, L., Joly, D.O., 2014. Estimating the potential impact of canine distemper virus on the Amur tiger population (Panthera tigris altaica) in Russia. PLoS One 9, e110811.

  30. Gilbert, M., Tingay, R., Jambal, L., Sureda, N., Gilbert, C., Davaasuren, B., Sundev, G., 2014. Distribution and status of the Pallas’s fish eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus in Mongolia: a cause for conservation concern? Bird Conserv. Int. 24, 379–388.

  31. Gilbert, M., 2014. Diclofenac and vulture populations. Vet. Rec. 174, 562.

  32. Margalida, A., Bogliani, G., Bowden, C.G.R., Donazar, J.A., Genero, F., Gilbert, M., Karesh, W.B., Kock, R., Lubroth, J., Vaarten, J., Yon, L., Kuiken, T., Green, R.E., 2014. One Health approach to use of veterinary pharmaceuticals. Science (80-. ). 346, 1296–8.

  33. Olson, S.H., Parmley, J., Soos, C., Gilbert, M., Latorre-Margalef, N., Hall, J.S., Hansbro, P.M., Leighton, F., Munster, V., Joly, D., 2014. Sampling strategies and biodiversity of influenza A subtypes in wild birds. PLoS One 9, e90826.

  34. Olson, S.H., Gilbert, M., Cheng, M.C., Mazet, J.A.K., Joly, D.O., 2013. Prevalence and distribution of avian influenza virus A (H7N9) among wild birds. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 19, 2031–2033.

  35. Gilbert, M., Jambal, L., Karesh, W.B., Fine, A., Shiilegdamba, E., Dulam, P., Sodnomdarjaa, R., Ganzorig, K., Batchuluun, D., Tseveenmyadag, N., Bolortuya, P., Cardona, C.J., Leung, C.Y.H., Peiris, J.S.M., Spackman, E., Swayne, D.E., Joly, D.O., 2012. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia. PLoS One 7, e44097.

  36. Gilbert, M., Bickford, D., Clark, L., Johnson, A., Joyner, P.H., Ogg Keatts, L., Khammavong, K., Nguyễn Văn, L., Newton, A., Seow, T.P.W., Roberton, S., Silithammavong, S., Singhalath, S., Yang, A., Seimon, T.A., 2012. Amphibian pathogens in Southeast Asian frog trade. Ecohealth 9, 9(4):386-98.

  37. Gilbert, M., Philippa, J., 2012. Avian influenza H5N1 virus: epidemiology in wild birds, zoo outbreaks, and zoo vaccination policy., in: Miller, R.E., Fowler, M.E. (Eds.), Fowler’s Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Volume 7: Current Therapy. Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, pp. 343–348.

  38. Gilbert, M., Sokha, C., Joyner, P.H., Thomson, R.L., Poole, C., 2012. Characterizing the trade of wild birds for merit release in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and associated risks to health and ecology. Biol. Conserv. 153, 10–16.

  39. Chu, D.K.W., Leung, C.Y.H., Perera, H.K.K., Ng, E.M., Gilbert, M., Joyner, P.H., Grioni, A., Ades, G., Guan, Y., Peiris, J.S.M., Poon, L.L.M., 2012. A novel group of avian astroviruses in wild aquatic birds. J. Virol. 86, 13772–8.

  40. Clements, T., Gilbert, M., Rainey, H.J., Cuthbert, R., Eames, J.C., Bunnat, P., Teak, S., Chansocheat, S., Setha, T., 2012. Vultures in Cambodia: population, threats and conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 1–18.

  41. Ishtiaq, F., Gilbert, M., Brown, J., Joyner, P., Sodnomdarjaa, R., Luttrell, M.P., Stallknecht, D., Joly, D.O., 2012. Antibodies to influenza A virus in wild birds across Mongolia, 2006 – 2009. J. Wildl. Dis. 48, 768–775.

  42. Thinh, T.V., Gilbert, M., Bunpapong, N., Amonsin, A., Nguyen, D.T., Doherty, P.F., Huyvaert, K.P., 2012. Avian influenza viruses in wild land birds in northern Vietnam. J. Wildl. Dis. 48, 195–200.

  43. Chu, D.K.W., Leung, C.Y.H., Gilbert, M., Joyner, P.H., Ng, E.M., Tse, T.M., Guan, Y., Peiris, J.S.M., Poon, L.L.M., 2011. Avian coronavirus in wild aquatic birds. J. Virol. 85, 12815–20.

  44. Gilbert, M., 2010. New Guinea harpy eagle, in: Tingay, R.E., Katzner, T.E. (Eds.), The Eagle Watchers. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA, pp. 33–39.

  45. Pérez, G.E.G.E., Hobson, K.A.K.A., Garde, E.J.E.J., Gilbert, M., 2010. Deuterium (δD) in feathers of Mongolian waterbirds uncovers migratory movements. Waterbirds 33, 438–443.

  46. Newman, S.H., Iverson, S.A., Takekawa, J.Y., Gilbert, M., Prosser, D.J., Batbayar, N., Natsagdorj, T., Douglas, D.C., 2009. Migration of whooper swans and outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Eastern Asia. PLoS One 4, e5729.

  47. Spackman, E., Swayne, D.E., Gilbert, M., Joly, D.O., Karesh, W.B., Suarez, D.L., Sodnomdarjaa, R., Dulam, P., Cardona, C., 2009. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007. Virol. J. 6.

  48. Johnson, J.A., Gilbert, M., Virani, M.Z., Asim, M., Mindell, D.P., 2008. Temporal genetic analysis of the critically endangered oriental white-backed vulture in Pakistan. Biol. Conserv. 141, 2403–2409.

  49. Kim, J.K., Seiler, P., Forrest, H.L., Khalenkov, A.M., Franks, J., Kumar, M., Karesh, W.B., Gilbert, M., Sodnomdarjaa, R., Douangngeun, B., A., G.E., Webster, R.G., 2008. Pathogenicity and Vaccine Efficacy of Different Clades of Asian H5N1 Avian Influenza A Viruses in Domestic Ducks. J. Virol. JVI.01176-.

  50. Pain, D.J., Bowden, C.G.R., Cunningham, A.A., Cuthbert, R., Das, D., Gilbert, M., Jakati, R.D., Jhala, Y., Khan, A.A., Naidoo, V., Lindsay Oaks, J., Parry-Jones, J., Prakash, V., Rahmani, A., Ranade, S.P., Sagar Baral, H., Ram Senacha, K., Saravanan, S., Shah, N., Swan, G., Swarup, D., Taggart, M.A., Watson, R.T., Virani, M.Z., Wolter, K., Green, R.E., 2008. The race to prevent the extinction of South Asian vultures. Bird Conserv. Int. 18, S30--S48.

  51. Tingay, R.E., Sureda, N., Gilbert, M., 2008. Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) foraging behavior in Mongolia: A combined use of diversionary and covert ambush tactics? J. Raptor Res. 42, 155–156.

  52. Watson, R.T., Gilbert, M., Virani, M., 2008. Neck-drooping posture of Oriental White-backed Vultures (Gyps bengalensis) in close proximity to human observers. J. Raptor Res. 42, 66–67.

  53. Gilbert, M., Watson, R.T., Virani, M.Z., Oaks, J.L., Ahmed, S., Chaudhry, M.J.I., Arshad, M., Mahmood, S., Ali, A., Khan, A.A., 2007. Neck-drooping posture in oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis): An unsuccessful predictor of mortality and its probable role in thermoregulation. J. Raptor Res. 41, 35–40.

  54. Gilbert, M., Watson, R.T., Ahmed, S., Asim, M., Johnson, J.A., 2007. Vulture restaurants and their role in reducing diclofenac exposure in Asian vultures. Bird Conserv. Int. 17, 63–77.

  55. Karesh, W.B.B., Cook, R.A.A., Gilbert, M., Newcomb, J., 2007. Implications of wildlife trade on the movement of avian influenza and other infectious diseases. J. Wildl. Dis. 43, S55--S59.

  56. Gilbert, M., Watson, R.T., Virani, M.Z., Oaks, J.L., Ahmed, S., Chaudhry, M.J.I., Arshad, M., Mahmood, S., Ali, A., Khan, A.A., 2006. Rapid population declines and mortality clusters in three Oriental white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis colonies in Pakistan due to diclofenac poisoning. Oryx 40, 388–399.

  57. Gilbert, M., Chansocheat, S., 2006. Olfaction in Accipitrid vultures. Vulture News 55, 6–7.

  58. Gilbert, M., Chansocheat, S., Sureda, N., 2006. First record of Himalayan griffon vulture Gyps himalyensis in Chhep, Preah Vihea, northern Cambodia. Vulture News 55, 4–5.

  59. Meteyer, C.U., Rideout, B.A., Gilbert, M., Shivaprasad, H.L., Oaks, J.L., 2005. Pathology and proposed pathophysiology of diclofenac poisoning in free-living and experimentally exposed oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis). J. Wildl. Dis. 41, 707–716.

  60. Gilbert, M., Oaks, J.L., Virani, M.Z., Watson, R.T., Ahmed, S., Chaudhry, M.J.I., Arshad, M., Mahmood, S., Ali, A., Khattak, R.M., Khan, A.A., Chancellor, R.D., Meyburg, 2004. The status and decline of vultures in the provinces of Punjab and Sind, Pakistan: a 2003 update, in: Chancellor, R.D., Meyburg, B.U. (Eds.), Raptors Worldwide: Proceedings of the VI World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls, Budapest, Hungary, 18-23 May 2003. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls & MME/BirdLife Hungary, Berlin & Budapest, pp. 221–234.

  61. Green, R.E., Newton, I., Shultz, S., Cunningham, A.A., Gilbert, M., Pain, D.J., Prakash, V., 2004. Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines across the Indian subcontinent. J. Appl. Ecol. 41, 793–800.

  62. Oaks, J L, Gilbert, M., Virani, M.Z., Watson, R.T., Meteyer, C.U., Rideout, B.A., Shivaprasad, H.L., Ahmed, S., Chaudhry, M.J., Arshad, M., Mahmood, S., Ali, A., Khan, A.A., 2004. Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature 427, 630–633.

  63. Oaks, J L, Donahoe, S.L., Rurangirwa, F.R., Rideout, B.A., Gilbert, M., Virani, M.Z., 2004. Identification of a novel Mycoplasma species from an Oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis). J. Clin. Microbiol. 42, 5909–5912.

  64. Oaks, J. L., Meteyer, C.U., Rideout, B.A., Shivaprasad, H.., Gilbert, M., Virani, M., Watson, R.T., Khan, A.A., 2004. Diagnostic investigation of vulture mortality: the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is associated with visceral gout., in: Chancellor, R.D., Meyburg, B.U. (Eds.), Raptors Worldwide: Proceedings of the VI World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls, Budapest, Hungary, 18-23 May 2003. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls & MME/BirdLife Hungary, Berlin & Budapest, pp. 241–243.

  65. Oaks, J. L., Meteyer, C.U., Rideout, B.A., Shivaprasad, H.L., Gilbert, M., Virani, M.Z., Watson, R.T., Khan, A.A., 2004. Diagnostic investigation of vulture mortality: the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is associated with visceral gout. Falco 24, 13–14.

  66. Sarrazin, F., Virani, M.Z., Gilbert, M., Khan, A.A., 2004. Preliminary population viability analyses for Oriental white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis in Punjab Province, Pakistan., in: Chancellor, R., Meyburg, B. (Eds.), Raptors Worldwide: Proceedings of the VI World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls, Budapest, Hungary, 18-23 May 2003. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls & MME/BirdLife Hungary, Berlin & Budapest, pp. 257–262.

  67. Virani, M.Z., Benson, P.C., Gilbert, M., Thomsett, S., 2004. A survey of the reproductive activities at some Gyps vulture nests in Kanha, Bandhavgarh and Ranthambhore National Parks, India, in the 2002-2003 breeding season., in: Chancellor, R., Meyburg, B.U. (Eds.), Raptors Worldwide: Proceedings of the VI World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls, Budapest, Hungary, 18-23 May 2003. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls & MME/BirdLife Hungary, Berlin & Budapest, pp. 263–268.

  68. Watson, R.T., Gilbert, M., Oaks, J.L., Virani, M., 2004. The collapse of vulture populations in South Asia. Biodiversity 5, 3–7.

  69. Riley, J., Oaks, J.L., Gilbert, M., 2003. Raillietiella trachea n. sp., a pentastomid from the trachea of an oriental white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis taken in Pakistan, with speculation about its life-cycle. Syst. Parasitol. 56, 155–161.

  70. Gilbert, M., Virani, M.Z., Watson, R.T., Oaks, J.L., Benson, P.C., Khan, A.A., Ahmed, S., Chaudhry, J., Arshad, M., Mahmood, S., Shah, Q.A., 2002. Breeding and mortality of Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Bird Conserv. Int. 12, 311–326.

  71. Gilbert, M., 2002. Vulture Shock. BBC Wildl. Mag. 20, 58–60.

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  75. Tingay, R.E., Gilbert, M., 2000. Behaviour of banded kestrel Falco zoniventris in western Madagascar: a possible foraging association with sickle-billed vanga Falculea palliata. Bull. African Bird Club 7, 111–113.

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