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Toxicology

The Toxicology Section strives to be the most competent and responsive toxicology laboratory in the country by providing complete analytical toxicology services to private practitioners, commercial agricultural businesses, cooperative extension agencies and universities. The Toxicology Section utilizes modern state-of-the-art analytical instruments and techniques for the detection, identification, and quantification of organic, inorganic and toxic compounds of interest to the food, feed, and animal industries.

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Services

We are committed to providing:

  • State-of-the-art analytical toxicology services.
  • Unequaled client support.
  • Exceptional turnaround time.
  • Adherence to Good Laboratory Practices.

Major services and unique aspects provided by the Toxicology Section include:

  • Equine pre-purchase drug screening and horse pull drug screening.
  • Organic: Identification and confirmation by HPLC, Capillary GC/MS and LC/MS/MS:
    • Drugs
    • Rodenticides
    • Alkaloids
    • Ionophores
    • Vitamin A & E
  • Inorganic analysis: By XRF, GFAA and ICP
    • Toxic heavy metals
    • Mineral panels
    • Whole blood lead, selenium, and arsenic
    • Serum copper and zinc levels

People

Karyn Bischoff, DVM
Director, Toxicology
klb72@cornell.edu

Jennifer Moiseff
Laboratory Manager
jm437@cornell.edu

Research

  • Red Maple Syndrome in Horses: This year we took on an undergraduate student researcher who is investigating the cause of Red Maple Poisoning in Horses with us, hoping to identify the causative toxic compounds.
  • Wheat/DON Study: A Collaborative Wheat/Deoxynivalenol (DON) study with Dr. Gary Bergstrom of Plant Pathology at Cornell. This study is a continuation of work done in 2009 where we quantified the mycotoxin DON in various portions/fractions of the wheat from a field previously inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. This fungus is the causal agent of head blight of wheat and also produces two major mycotoxins, Zearalenone and Deoxynivalenol (DON), both having potential health consequences to livestock and people. Our findings and detection of DON in the straw portions have not been documented previously, to our knowledge. Currently, we are comparing inoculated wheat to wheat not inoculated with Fusarium graminearum and analyzed for the presence of DON in the fractions as above. Another on-going study is on the effect of ensiling on DON concentrations in corn. 
  • CUAES Hatch Project, Assessing the fate of drugs in livestock mortality and manures, J. Bonhotal, K. Bischoff. $90,000/year, Project Period 09/01/2009-09/01/2012.  This study will determine the environmental fate of veterinary drugs in composed animals and manure.
  • Cornell 4-Poster Deer Permethrin Project on Shelter Island: This project is collaborative study with Cornell wildlife biologists and the Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) involving the assessment of Permethrin residue concentrations in edible tissues of deer harvested on Shelter Island. This has been an ongoing study since 2006.    
  • Deer Selenium Study: Assessment of Selenium concentrations in livers from wild deer in the Ithaca N.Y. area in conjunction with the Earn-A-Buck Hunter Program at Cornell University and deer from Shelter Island in NYC area.
  • Sulfur in Bovine Study: RAC Seed Grant, Evaluation of Sulfur Concentrations in Bovine Urine, Kidney, and Liver, C.G. Lamm, S.E. Morgan, J.D. Taylor, K. Bischoff. $3,413, Project Period 01/01/2010-12/31/2010.  This study will determine if tissue and urine sulfur concentrations are different in cattle with sulfur-induced polioencephalomalacia.
  • Memorandum of Understanding with National Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang, Republic of Korea: For joint projects including mycotoxin detection, biomarkers for lead and other heavy metals, and phytotoxin detectionK. Bischoff, H.G. Kang. $60,000/year, Project Period: 7/01/08-6/30/11.  Funding for this project has been used to determine the use of aminolevulinic acid  (ALA) for lead in cattle, the DON and red maple studies above, and will be used to develop a method for detection of Amanita spp mushroom toxins in the future.

Publications

  • K. Bischoff, W.K. Rumbeiha (2018). Pet Food Recalls and Pet Food Contaminants in Small Animals: An Update. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 48(6): 917-931. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2018.07.005.

  • K. Bischoff, J. Moiseff (2018). Equine feed contamination and toxicology. Translational Animal Science 2(1): 111-118.

  • K. Bischoff, G. Finstad, M. Cary, J. Hillebrandt, J. Moiseff, H.N. Erb (2017). Variations in blood selenium and serum vitamin E in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) described by location, husbandry, and season. Rangifer 37(1): 1-10.

  • K. Bischoff, A. Chiapella, J. Weisman, L.M. Crofton, J. Hillebrandt (2017). Zinc toxicosis in a dog secondary to ingestion of a holiday garland. J Med Toxicol. 13(3): 263-266.

  • J. Hopkins*, M. Pardo*, K. Bischoff (2017). Serotonin syndrome from 5-hydroxytryptophan supplement ingestion and presumptive hydrogen peroxide toxicosis in a 9 month old Labrador retriever. J. Med Toxicol. 13(2): 183-186.

  • K.M. Walter*, K. Bischoff, R. de Matos (2017). Severe lead toxicosis in a Lionhead rabbit. J Med Toxicol 13(1): 91-94.

  • K. Bischoff, J. Hillebrandt, H.N. Erb, B. Thompson, S. Johns (2016). Comparison of blood and tissue lead concentrations from cattle with known lead exposure. Food Addit Contamin Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 13: 1-7.

  • J.W. Spoo, D.L. Zoran, R.L. Downey, K. Bischoff, J.J. Wakschlag (2015). Serum biochemical, blood gas and antioxidant status in search and rescue dogs before and after simulated fieldwork. Vet J. 206(1):47-53.

  • K. Bischoff, M. Smith, S. Stump (2014). Treatment of Pieris Ingestion in Goats with Intravenous Lipid Emulsion. J Med Toxicol. 10(4):411-414.

  • K. Bischoff, W. Higgins, B Thompson, J.G. Ebel (2014). Lead excretion in milk of accidentally exposed dairy cattle. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 31(5):839-44.

  • K. Agrawal*, J.G. Ebel, K. Bischoff (2014). A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid. J Anal Toxicol. 38(5):272-279.

  • C. Karanfil, K. Bischoff, G. Bunker (2013). Hg and Se Speciation in Liver Tissue of Marine Birds. 2013 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 430 012039.

  • K. Agrawal*, J.G. Ebel, C. Altier, K. Bischoff (2013). Identification of protoxins and a microbial basis for red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in equines. JVDI. 25: 112-119.

  • K. Bischoff, W. Rumbeiha. Pet food recalls (2012). Vet Clin Small Anim. 42: 237–250.

  • K. Bischoff, B. Thompson, H.N. Erb, W.P. Higgins, J.G. Ebel, J. Hillebrandt. Declines in blood lead concentrations in clinically affected and unaffected cattle accidentally exposed to lead (2012). JVDI. 24: 182-187.

  • K. Bischoff, R. Jaeger, J.G. Ebel. An unusual case of relay pentobarbital toxicosis in a dog (2011). Journal of Medical Toxicology. 7: 236-329.

  • K. Bischoff, M.C. Smith. Toxic Plants of the Northeastern United States (2011). Vet Clin Ruminants. 27: 459-480.

  • H.G. Kang, K. Bischoff, J.G. Ebel, S.H. Cha, J. McCardle. Comparison of blood lead and blood and plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid concentrations as biomarkers for lead poisoning in cattle (2010). JVDI 22: 903-907.

  • T. McComb ,* K. Bischoff, B. Thompson, M.C. Smith, H.O. Mohammed, J.G. Ebel, J.R. Hillebrandt. An investigation of blood selenium concentrations of goats in New York State (2010). JVDI 22: 696-701.

  • K. Bischoff, C. Gaskill, H.N. Erb, J.G. Ebel, J.R. Hillebrandt. Comparison of 2 methods for blood lead analysis in cattle: graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and LeadCare® II system (2010). JVDI 22: 729-733.

  • C. Lamm,* K. Bischoff, H.N. Erb, C.L. Guard, J.R. Hillebrandt, B. Thompson, B.L. Njaa. Trace-mineral concentrations in dairy cattle with rupture of abdominal-artery aneurysm (2010). Bovine Pract. 44: 36-41.

  • K. Bischoff, H. Priest,* A. Mount-Long. Animals as sentinels in lead poisoning: a case report (2010). J Med Toxicol 6: 185-189.

*indicates student or resident

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