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Bovine Diagnostic Plans and Panels

Updated February 16, 2022

The following diagnostic plans have been developed primarily as an educational tool to assist the veterinarian in designing a complete, although not exhaustive, diagnostic strategy. To encourage veterinarians to select only the tests that are deemed clinically appropriate in each situation, the price of the diagnostic plan is not discounted from the sum of the individual test costs.

For the test groupings labeled as panels, there may be a discounted price versus the costs of the individual tests. Diagnostic plans and panels can be requested by writing the complete name as the test request. If appropriate samples are included all tests will be performed.

Antimicrobial susceptibilities for culture isolates are available upon request at an additional charge.

Print Plans and Panels

Bovine Abortion Fetal Tissue Diagnostic Plan

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
(3) Aerobic Bacterial Culture
Listeria included
AER
  • Submit 3 fresh tissue samples (3): lung, placenta including cotyledons, and abomasal contents - labelled and individually bagged; for individual aerobic culture
Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (IBR) PCRBHV1
  • Fresh kidney; if not available, use liver
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCRBVDPCR
  • Fresh lung; if not available, use spleen or heart
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 1BVDSN
  • Fetal heart blood or pleural, pericardial or peritoneal effusion in a red top tube
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 2BVDSN2
  • Fetal heart blood or pleural, pericardial or peritoneal effusion in a red top tube
Campylobacter fetus (Vibrio) FACAMPYFA
  • Placenta with cotyledons; if not available, use fetal liver
HistopathologyHISTO
  • Formalin-fixed tissue: placenta, fetal liver, lung, brain, adrenal, heart, thymus, small intestine, kidney, fetal skin
(2) Leptospira PCRLEPTPCR
  • Submit 2 fresh tissue samples: placenta including cotyledons and fetal kidney; stomach contents acceptable
Neospora IFANEO
  • Fetal heart blood or pleural, pericardial or peritoneal effusion in a red top tube

Notes

If full necropsy desired, see necropsy testing.

Ship fresh tissue chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

If placentitis present, consider adding Coxiella burnetii PCR (COXPCR) to placenta; if not available use abomasal contents; if neither available use lung

If indicated, add Virus Isolation (VI) on Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin)

Bovine Abortion Serology Panel + Selenium

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Brucella Buffered Acidified Plate Antigen TestBAPA
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 1BVDSN
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) (BHV-1) SN OIEIBRSNOIE
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Leptospira MAT, 5 standard serovarsLEPTO
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Neospora IFANEO
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Selenium, whole bloodSEL
  • Maternal EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Maternal heparin whole blood (green top tube)

Notes

Ship chilled.

When acute samples are received, the serologic assays will be run at that time, and samples retained. If second, convalescent samples are later submitted, please note the accession number for the acute serology. Tests on both samples will be run in parallel and paired results should be interpreted. No fee will be applied to the second test performed on the acute sample at the time of the paired testing.

Bovine Chronic Ill Thrift / Weight Loss Plan

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Anaplasmosis c-ELISAANAEL
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE)BVDACE
  • Ear notch/skin biopsy (any age)
  • Milk or serum if >61 days of age
CholesterolCHOL
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube)
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Fecal FloatationFLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation)FIB-SCH
  • EDTA blood (tube >1/2 full)
Hemogram, Large AnimalLA CBC
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Johne's AGIDJAGID
  • Serum (separated)
Johne's Fecal PCR

JPCRI (NY state residency)

JPCRO (out-of-state residency)

JPCRN (enrolled in NYSCHAP program)

  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
  • Prices for Johne's Fecal PCR are dependent on NY state vs. out-of-state residency, and participation in the NYSCHAP program
Large Animal ChemistryLA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube) or
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Peritoneal Fluid CytologyPTFE
  • 1ml peritoneal fluid in EDTA (PTT); red top tube if culture anticipated plus 2-3 unstained smears
Selenium, tissueNCRJ
  • Fresh liver
Selenium, whole bloodSEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)
TriglyceridesTRIG
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Vitamin E in serumNDIK
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube

Notes

*If hypocholesterolemia and hypotriglyeridemia is suspected in Holstein calves, submit serum or plasma for Cholesterol and Triglycerides testing plus 20-30 hairs with roots for APOB gene testing.

Please note that additional referral diagnostics to consider with this plan may include Anaplasma marginale PCR, Cholesterol Deficiency APOB Gene and Mycoplasma PCR. These referral diagnostics must be sent directly to their respective diagnostic testing laboratory for out of state submissions and those cases that are not under NY state contract. Visit our referral testing web page for referral lab contact information. Please contact the AHDC Veterinary Support Services team with any questions (vetsupport@cornell.edu, 607.253.3900).

Bovine Diarrhea, Adult (Acute) Diagnostic Plan

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Coronavirus PCR, BetaBCOR
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCRBVDPCR
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Fecal FloatationFLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Johne's AGIDJAGID
  • Serum (separated)
Johne's Fecal PCR

JPCRI (NY state residency)

JPCRO (out-of-state residency)

JPCRN (enrolled in NYSCHAP program)

  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
  • Prices for Johne's Fecal PCR are dependent on NY state vs. out-of-state residency, and participation in the NYSCHAP program
Salmonella cultureSALM
  • One fecal sample (fill to line on container but do not overfill) can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery
Selenium, tissueNCRJ
  • Fresh liver
Selenium, whole bloodSEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)

Notes

Salmonella culture can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery. ParaPak® transport media is available.

Ship chilled, except for ParaPak® which should be kept at room temperature.

Bovine Diarrhea, Adult (Chronic) Diagnostic Plan

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE)BVDACE
  • Serum (separated) or ear notch
Fecal FloatationFLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Johne's AGIDJAGID
  • Serum (separated)
Johne's Fecal PCR

JPCRI (NY state residency)

JPCRO (out-of-state residency)

JPCRN (enrolled in NYSCHAP program)

  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
  • Prices for Johne's Fecal PCR are dependent on NY state vs. out-of-state residency, and participation in the NYSCHAP program
Salmonella cultureSALM
  • One fecal sample (fill to line on container but do not overfill) can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery
Selenium, tissueNCRJ
  • Fresh liver
Selenium, whole bloodSEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)

Notes

Ship chilled, expect for ParaPak®, which should be kept at room temperature.

Bovine Diarrhea, Calf (Acute) Diagnostic Plan

Ante mortem

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture, Escherichia coli Genotype Panel PCR (K99, F17A, F41, Sta and CNF)*

AER

ECPNL 

  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
  • Fecal swab placed in bacterial transport media
  • Escherichia coli genotyping PCR to further identify which genes for which adhesins and toxins are present

Anaerobic Bacterial Culture

Clostridium perfringens Genotype PCR

ANAER

CPGPCR

  • Fecal swab in anaerobic transport media shipped at room temperature
  • Clostridium perfringens genotyping PCR to further identify which genes for which toxins are present
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE)BVDACE
  • Fresh ear notch
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCRBVDPCR
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Coronavirus PCR, BetaBCOR
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Gram StainGRAM
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Fecal Floatation
If >3 days old
FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Rotavirus Antigen Detection Group ARLA
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Salmonella cultureSALM
  • Fecal swab placed in anaerobic transport media
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
  • Fresh fecal sample in sterile container (fill to line on container but do not overfill) or in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery
Selenium, whole bloodSEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)

Necropsy

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture, Escherichia coli Genotype Panel PCR (K99, F17A, F41, Sta and CNF)*

AER

ECPNL

  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
  • Intestinal swab placed in bacterial transport media
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)
  • To Diagnose Septicemia; lung, kidney, spleen, lymph node (tracheobronchial preferred)
  • Escherichia coli genotyping PCR to further identify which genes for which adhesins and toxins are present

Anaerobic Bacterial Culture

Clostridium perfringens Genotype PCR

ANAER

CPGPCR

  • Tied off loop of bowel refrigerated and less than 24 hour old or frozen
  • Intestinal swab in anaerobic transport media shipped at room temperature
  • Clostridium perfringens genotyping PCR to further identify which genes for which toxins are present
Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) FABCVFA
  • Fresh ileum, jejunum, or cecum
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE)BVDACE
  • Fresh ear notch
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCRBVDPCR
  • Fresh loop of intestine (preferred), spleen or lymph node; lung acceptable
Fecal Floatation
If >3 days old
FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Gram StainGRAM
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (fresh)
  • Fresh feces
HistopathologyHISTO
  • Formalin-fixed tissue: full set of tissues (including multiple sections of intestinal tract)
Rotavirus FAROTAFA
  • Fresh section of small intestine
Salmonella cultureSALM
  • Fecal swab or intestinal swab placed in Amies transport media
  • Fresh tied off loop of bowel (ileum or jejunum) in sterile container
  • Fresh fecal sample in sterile container (fill to line on container but do not overfill) or in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery
Selenium, tissueNCRJ
  • Fresh liver

Notes

*Additional Escherichia coli genotyping offered at the Animal Health Diagnostic Center is included on the EAE, STX1, STX2 Panel (EAESTX).

May also consider Cryptosporidium ELISA on calves 3-30 days and Giardia ELISA on calves from 7 days to 6 months. Both of these are performed on fecal samples.

Also selenium on an EDTA whole blood sample or liver may be appropriate in some situations.

BBL™ Port-a-cul™ and ParaPak® transport media are available.

Ante mortem samples: Ship chilled and keep frozen samples frozen except for anaerobic transport systems and ParaPak®, which should be kept at room temperature.

Necropsy samples: Ship chilled and keep frozen samples frozen except for anaerobic transport systems and ParaPak®, which should be kept at room temperature. Protect fixed tissue from freezing.

To rule in/out acute BVD infection in a live calf, include EDTA whole blood for BVD PCR as the BVD Antigen Capture ELISA test on ear notch samples will only reliably detect BVD Persistently Infected animals. For post-mortem submissions, BVD FA on bowel tissue and BVD ACE on ear notch together will rule out acute and PI infection. Alternatively BVD PCR on fresh bowel can be added if ear notch has not been collected.

Bovine Metabolic Panel

Panel Code: MPT P

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
AlbuminALB
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Aspartate AminotransferaseAST
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Beta-HydroxybutyrateBHBA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Non-Esterified Fatty AcidNEFA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Urea NitrogenBUN
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.

Notes

For BHBA and NEFA testing on the herd level, it is recommended to sample 12 animals per herd from cows that are 3-14 days in milk.

Ship chilled. Serum can be frozen and placed in chest freezer that is not a frost-free freezer to minimize the freeze-thaw cycles.

Bovine Neurologic Diagnostic Plan

Please strongly consider RABIES testing at your state health department.

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial CultureAER
  • (1) swab inoculated with CSF
  • (1) swab of meninges prior to contamination and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
  • CSF sample taken using sterile technique and placed in aerobic blood culture media (preferred) or in sterile red top tube
Cerebrospinal Fluid CytologyCSFE
  • CSF in EDTA (purple top tube)
HistopathologyHISTO
  • Full set of fixed tissues placed in formalin, including multiple sections of brain and spinal cord
Large Animal Chemistry PanelLA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube) or
  • Serum (separated)
Lead (blood)BDLEAD
  • EDTA or Heparin whole blood (lavender or green top tube)
Lead (tissue)NCOX
  • Fresh liver in sterile container
Listeria CultureLISTCUL
  • Fresh brain (preferably brainstem) placed in sterile container
Mineral/Electrolytes PanelMINLY P
  • Serum or heparinized plasma (separated)
Mineral Panel (Tissue)MINP
  • To diagnose hypernatremia postmortem
  • Fresh brain (preferably cerebrum) placed in sterile container 
Selenium, tissueNCRJ
  • Fresh liver
Selenium, whole bloodSEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)
Toxic Heavy Metal PanelTHMP
  • Fresh liver or kidney
  • Feed
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube), heparin whole blood (green top tube), or citrate whole blood (blue top tube)

Notes

May also want to consider Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytology which requires CSF in EDTA tube (LTT) and (2) air dried slides of CSF.

Protect slides from formalin exposure. If salt toxicity is a possibility may want to consider mineral panel on fresh brain.

If whole head is submitted a rabies brain extraction fee will be applied. Please submit completed NYS rabies specimen history form and write out clear instructions on what additional diagnostic tests should be performed. Ship chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Please indicate if rabies testing is pending. See Tissues for Rabies Diagnosis for photos of brain samples needed for rabies testing.

Bovine Pinkeye Diagnostic Plan

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Aerobic bacterial cultureAER
  • Conjunctival swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (IBR) PCRBHV1
  • Conjunctival swab (in RTT with saline)
Mycoplasma CultureMYCOPL
  • Conjunctival swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)

Notes

Ship swab chilled and slide at room temperature.

Bovine Reproduction Bacteriology Panel A (formerly "Reproductive Bacteriology Cultures, Panel 4")

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Aerobic bacterial cultureAER
  • Uterine swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal) or semen, urethral, or preputial sample in sterile container.
Mycoplasma CultureMYCOPL
  • Uterine swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal) or semen, urethral, or preputial sample in sterile container.
Ureaplasma CultureUREAPL
  • Uterine swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal) or semen, urethral, or preputial sample in sterile container.

Notes

Ship chilled. This panel is often combined with Bovine Reproduction Bacteriology Panel B.

Bovine Respiratory (Acute) Diagnostic Plan

TTW fluid is a superior sample for detection of significant bacterial pathogens causing lower airway disease.

Results of nasal or pharyngeal swab cultures must be interpreted with caution as many bacterial organisms may be present as normal commensals in the upper respiratory tract. It may be helpful to collect and bank a serum sample for possible acute and convalescent serology.

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial CultureAER
  • Deep nasopharyngeal swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal preferred)
  • Swab of transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or swab of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in Amies transport media or BAL/TTW fluid in red top tube
  • Fresh lung
  • To diagnose septicemia post-mortem, especially Salmonella Dublin, also submit kidney, spleen, lymph node (tracheobronchial)
Aerobic Blood CultureBLDAER
  • Use to diagnose bacterial septicemia, especially Salmonella Dublin
  • Aseptically collected whole blood in aerobic blood culture media
Anaerobic Bacterial CultureANAER
  • Swab of transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or swab of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in anaerobic transport media
  • Fresh lung (>2-3 cm in diameter, minimum size)
  • Swab of lung or piece of lung tissue aseptically collected and immediately placed in anaerobic transport media
Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (IBR) PCRBHV1
  • Nasal, deep nasopharyngeal or ocular swab in viral transport media or red top tube with 0.5ml of sterile saline
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
  • Fresh lung
  • If animal has aborted: submit fresh fetal kidney (preferred), placenta, other fetal tissues (lung, spleen, heart, liver)
Bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus PCRPI3
  • Nasal or deep nasopharyngeal swab in viral transport media or a red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) preferred sample) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
  • Fresh lung
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus PCRBRS
  • Nasal or deep nasopharyngeal swab in viral transport media or red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
  • Fresh lung
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Ag Capture ELISA (ACE)BVDACE
  • Fresh ear-notch/skin biopsy (i.e., NOT fixed), any age OR
  • 1mL serum, animal must be at least 61 days old OR
  • Milk from individual animal, any age
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCRBVDPCR
  • EDTA whole blood, serum (animal must be at least 61 days old) or milk
  • Nasal or deep nasopharyngeal swab in viral transport media or red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
  • Fresh loop of intestine (preferred), spleen or lymph node; lung acceptable
Coronavirus PCR, BetaBCOR
  • Nasal or deep nasopharyngeal swab in viral transport media or red top tube with 0.5ml of sterile saline
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
  • Fresh lung
Fecal Float FLOAT
  • For the detection of lungworm
  • Fresh feces (do not freeze)
HistopathologyHISTO
  • Formalin-fixed tissue: full set of tissues
Mycoplasma CultureMYCOPL
  • Deep nasopharyngeal swab in aerobic transport media preferred (Amies without charcoal)
  • Swab of transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or swab of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in Amies transport media or BAL/TTW fluid in red top tube
  • Fresh lung
Selenium, tissueNCRJ
  • Fresh liver
Selenium, whole bloodSEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)
Tracheal Wash CytologyTWE
  • Tracheal wash fluid in EDTA
  • Smears (at least 2-3 unstained smears preferred)
  • Also submit a red-top tube if culture is anticipated 

Notes

If indicated, add Virus Isolation (VI) on Fresh tissue

If indicated, consider adding Selenium on liver.

Full set of formalin fixed tissues: Skin, skeletal muscle, any enlarged lymph node, thyroid glands, lung, heart, liver, spleen, adrenal, kidney, stomach/forestomach, intestine, pancreas, colon, brain, all lesions.

Ante mortem: Ship chilled except for slides which should be at room temperature.

Necropsy: Ship fresh tissue and swabs chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Calf Management Diagnostic Plan

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Bacterial General IDQGID
  • 200ml milk, colostrum or water
  • Price is dependent on NY state vs. out-of-state residency
(8) Bulk Milk Aerobic CultureBTA
  • (2) 5ml samples Colostrum, as collected from cow
  • (2) 5ml samples Colostrum, as fed, collected from regular feeding utensil, after routine storage, if any
  • (2) 5ml samples Milk/milk replacer, as collected or mixed
  • (2) 5ml samples Milk/milk replacer, as fed, collected from regular feeding utensil, after routine storage, if any
(4) Quantitative Count (bedding, towel, filter)BEDID1
  • (2) bedding samples, clean stalls ready to occupy
  • (2) bedding samples, stalls with calves
  • Price is dependent on NY state vs. out-of-state residency
OsmolalityOSMO
  • (1) 5ml sample Milk Replacer or Electrolyte Supplement, as mixed for use
Selenium, whole bloodSEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)
(10) Total Protein, bloodTP
  • Serum or heparinized plasma on 10 calves less than one week of age

Notes

May also want to consider selenium on an EDTA whole blood sample in some situations.

Ship chilled.

Coagulation Panel, Large Animal

Panel Code: COAGPL

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
FibrinogenFIB
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)
Prothrombin TimePT
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)
aPTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time)APTT
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)

Notes

Ship chilled.

Dermatology Diagnostic Plan

All skin biopsy submissions should be accompanied by a Dermatohistopathology Submission Form.

Deep lesion

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial CultureAER
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
  • +/- Swab from deep in tissue placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
Fungal CultureFUNGCM
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
  • +/- Swab from deep in tissue placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
Fungal KOH Fluorescent StainFUNGKOH
  • Nails, skin scrapings or 10-12 hairs from border lesion
  • Fresh tissue or bodily fluids (systemic fungi/yeast)
  • Prepared slide
Gram StainGRAM
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
Histopathology (biopsy)HISTO
  • Multiple formalin fixed skin biopsies.

Superficial lesion

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Fungal CultureFUNGCM
  • (1) hair and skin scraping for fungal culture and gram stain sent in a sealable paper envelope
Fungal KOH Fluorescent StainFUNGKOH
  • Nails, skin scrapings or 10-12 hairs from border lesion
  • Fresh tissue or bodily fluids (systemic fungi/yeast)
  • Prepared slide
Gram StainGRAM
  • (1) hair and skin scraping for fungal culture and gram stain sent in a sealable paper envelope
Histopathology (biopsy)HISTO
  • Multiple formalin fixed skin biopsies.
Skin ScrapingSSE
  • (1) skin scraping for ectoparasite identification in an escape proof, nonporous container

Notes

Deep lesion samples: Ship chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Superficial lesion samples: Ship at room temperature and protect from temperature extremes. Protect slides from formalin exposure.

Embryo Transfer Recipient Panel

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV) ELISABLEL
  • Serum (separated)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE)BVDACE
  • Serum (separated)
Neospora IFANEO
  • Serum (separated)

Notes

Ship chilled.

Bovine Fever of Unknown Origin Diagnostic Plan

If case is chronic, virus isolation can be omitted if desired. If not previously performed a large animal chemistry panel may be warranted and serum (separated) or heparinized plasma would need to be submitted.

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial CultureAER
  • To diagnose septicemia post-mortem; fresh lung, kidney, spleen, and lymph node (tracheobronchial preferred)
(3) Blood Culture, AerobicBLDAER
  • (3) inoculated aerobic/fungal blood culture bottles
(3) Blood Culture, AnaerobicBLDAN
  • (3) inoculated anaerobic blood culture bottles
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Ag Capture ELISA (ACE)BVDACE
  • 1 ml serum or fresh ear-notch/skin biopsy
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation)FIB-SCH
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Hemogram, Large Animal
examination for blood parasites included
LA CBC
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Large Animal Chemistry PanelLA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube) or
  • Serum (separated)
Virus Isolation
nasal, whole blood
VI
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
  • Nasal swab in 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)

Notes

Ship chilled except for blood culture bottles and slides which are shipped at room temperature.

See Blood Culture Technique for more information. To order blood culture bottles go to shipping services or call 607.253.3935.

It may be helpful to collect and bank a serum sample for possible acute and convalescent serology.

This diagnostic plan is designed to detect a broad spectrum of systemic bacterial, viral, and some blood parasite causes of acute fever of unknown origin, as well as certain inflammatory changes which may assist in determining the underlying problems. Viral causes of illness are best detected acutely and most are unlikely to be detected in a patient with a chronic fever of unknown origin. This plan is intended to be used as an adjunct to targeted, disease-specific testing appropriate to the species, clinical history and geographic location or conditions. See Small Animal Internal Medicine, 5th Edition, 2014, Nelson RW and Couto CG; Chapter 88: Fever of Unknown Origin, pages 1279-1282 for other ideas of testing.

Large Animal Basic Workup

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation)FIB-SCH
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Hemogram, Large Animal LA CBC
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Large Animal Chemistry PanelLA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube) or
  • Serum (separated)

Notes

Ship chilled.

Large Animal Renal Panel

Plan Code: LARGE RENAL

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
AlbuminALB
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Anion Gap 
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
CalciumCA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
ChlorideCL
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
CreatinineCREAT
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Phosphate (Phosphorus)P
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
PotassiumK
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
SodiumNA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Urea NitrogenBUN
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma

Notes

Ship chilled.

Ruminant Liver Panel

Plan Code: RUMI LIVER

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
A/G Ratio 
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Aspartate AminotransferaseAST
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Beta-HydroxybutyrateBHBA
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Creatine kinaseCK
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Gamma Glutamyl TransferaseGGT
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Glutamate Dehydrogenase, bloodGLDH
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Non-Esterified Fatty AcidNEFA
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Sorbitol Dehydrogenase, bloodSDH
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Total Protein with Albumin and Globulins 
  • 2ml Serum (separated)

Notes

Ship chilled.

Transition Cow Energy Panel

Panel Code: TRANS PANEL

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Beta-HydroxybutyrateBHBA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or EDTA plasma
Non-Esterified Fatty AcidNEFA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or EDTA plasma

Notes

For BHBA and NEFA testing on the herd level, it is recommended to sample 12 animals per herd from cows that are 3-14 days in milk.

If negative energy balance in prepartum cows is the primary concern you may want to consider sampling 12 prefresh animals (2-14 days precalving) and only performing NEFAs.

Ship chilled. Serum can be frozen and placed in chest freezer that is not a frost-free freezer to minimize the freeze-thaw cycles.

Transition Cow Management Diagnostic Plan (Transition Cow Energy Panel + Selenium + Vitamin E)

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Beta-HydroxybutyrateBHBA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Non-Esterified Fatty AcidNEFA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Selenium, whole bloodSEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)
Vitamin E in serumNDIK
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.

Notes

For BHBA and NEFA testing on the herd level, it is recommended to sample 12 animals per herd from cows that are 3-14 days in milk.

If negative energy balance in prepartum cows is the primary concern you may want to consider sampling 12 prefresh animals (2-14 days precalving) and only performing NEFAs.

In some herd situations there may be value in considering testing on the herd level for subclinical hypocalcemia and this could be done by sampling 12 fresh animals (0-2 days) and performing calcium only.

Ship chilled.

Virus Isolation, IBR/BVD Semen Panel

Panel Code: VISP

Tests PerformedTest CodeSamples Needed
Virus Isolation, IBR/BVD Semen PanelVISP
  • Semen in sterile container.

Notes

Ship chilled.