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Bovine Diagnostic Plans and Panels

Updated August 23, 2019

The following diagnostic plans have been developed primarily as an educational tool to assist the veterinarian in designing a complete, although not exhaustive, diagnostic strategy. To encourage veterinarians to select only the tests that are deemed clinically appropriate in each situation, the price of the diagnostic plan is not discounted from the sum of the individual test costs.

For the test groupings labeled as panels, there may be a discounted price versus the costs of the individual tests. Diagnostic plans and panels can be requested by writing the complete name as the test request. If appropriate samples are included all tests will be performed.

Antimicrobial susceptibilities for culture isolates are available upon request at an additional charge.

Print Plans and Panels

Bovine Abortion Fetal Tissue Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
(3) Aerobic bacterial culture
Listeria included
AER
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis) FA IBRFA
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) FA BVDFA
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 1 BVDSN
  • Heart blood in sterile red top tube
Campylobacter fetus (Vibrio) FA CAMPYFA
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Field Necropsy Surcharge HISTONIB
  • Formalin fixed tissue: placenta, liver, lung, brain, adrenal, heart, thymus, small intestine, kidney, fetal skin
Histopathology HISTO
  • Formalin fixed tissue: placenta, liver, lung, brain, adrenal, heart, thymus, small intestine, kidney, fetal skin
Leptospira PCR LEPTPCR
  • Placenta/cotyledon. If not available, fetal lung, stomach or abomasal content
Leptospira PCR LEPTPCR
  • Fetal kidney. If not available, fetal lung, stomach or abomasal content
Neospora IFA NEO
  • Heart blood in sterile red top tube
Virus Isolation VI
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin

Prices

$544.20/fetus

Notes

Ship fresh tissue chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Kit is available.

Bovine Abortion Serology Panel + Selenium

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 1 BVDSN
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Brucella Fluorescence Polarization Assay BRFPA
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) (BHV-1) kinetic ELISA IBRK
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Leptospira MAT, 5 standard serovars LEPTO
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Neospora IFA NEO
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • Maternal EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube

Prices

$93.00 single
$157.00 paired (1 selenium)

Notes

Ship chilled.

When acute and convalescent samples are/will be collected, for most serology assays they should always be tested in parallel, and paired results interpreted. If acute samples are submitted alone please indicated if all tests should be performed. If second, convalescent samples are later submitted, tests on both samples will be run in parallel and fees for both samples will be charged. To avoid testing acute samples twice, hold and submit with convalescent samples. If convalescent samples will not be collected, or when infectious abortion is strongly suspected due to history, immediate testing of acute sample may be warranted.

Bovine Chronic Ill Thrift / Weight Loss Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Anaplasmosis c-ELISA ANAEL
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Ear notch/skin biopsy (any age)
  • Milk or serum if >61 days of age
Cholesterol CHOL
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Fecal Floatation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • EDTA blood (tube >1/2 full)
Hemogram, Large Animal LA CBC
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Johne's fecal PCR JPCRO
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Large Animal Chemistry LA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Peritoneal Fluid Cytology PTFE
  • 1ml peritoneal fluid in EDTA (PTT); red top tube if culture anticipated plus 2-3 unstained smears.
Ref: Anaplasma marginale PCR RAMARPCR
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Ref: Cholesterol Deficiency APOB Gene RGEN
  • 20-30 hairs with roots
Ref: Mycoplasma PCR RMYCPCR
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Triglycerides TRIG
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Vitamin E in serum NDIK
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube

Prices

Between $478.60 and $580.60 (if Cholesterol testing included).

Notes

* If hypocholesterolemia and hypotriglyeridemia is suspected in Holstein calves, submit serum or plasma for Cholesterol and Triglycerides testing plus 20-30 hairs with roots for APOB gene testing.

Bovine Diarrhea, Adult (Acute) Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Bovine Coronavirus PCR XBCVPCR
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Fecal Floatation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Johne's fecal PCR JPCRO
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Salmonella culture SALM
  • One fecal sample (1 g, fill to line on container but do not overfill) can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery

Prices

$164.00 (out of state)
$145.00 (NY State)

Notes

Salmonella culture can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery. ParaPak® transport media is available.

Ship chilled, except for ParaPak® which should be kept at room temperature.

Bovine Diarrhea, Adult (Chronic) Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Serum (separated) or ear notch
Fecal Floatation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Johne's fecal PCR JPCRO
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Salmonella culture SALM
  • One fecal sample (1 g, fill to line on container but do not overfill) can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery

Prices

$93.70 (out of state)
$74.70 (NY State)

Notes

Ship chilled, expect for ParaPak®, which should be kept at room temperature.

Bovine Diarrhea, Calf (Acute) Diagnostic Plan

Ante mortem

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • Fecal swab placed in anaerobic transport media
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Fresh ear notch
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin CLPT
  • Frozen feces (5 g)
Coronavirus PCR, Beta BCOR
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Fecal Floatation
If >3 days old
FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Rotavirus Antigen Detection Group A RLA
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Salmonella culture SALM
  • Fecal swab placed in anaerobic transport media
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
  • One fecal sample (1 g, fill to line on container but do not overfill) can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery

Necropsy

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • +/- Intestinal swab placed in anaerobic transport media
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (10 g)
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Fresh ear notch
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (fresh)
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)
Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin CLPT
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)
Fecal Floatation
If >3 days old
FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (10 g)
Field Necropsy Surcharge HISTONIB
  • Full set of tissues (including multiple sections of intestinal tract) placed in formalin.
Histopathology HISTO
  • Full set of tissues (including multiple sections of intestinal tract) placed in formalin.
Salmonella culture SALM
  • +/- Intestinal swab placed in anaerobic transport media
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (fresh)
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)
(3) Virus Isolation
Bovine Rotavirus, Bovine Coronavirus, Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV)
VI
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (fresh)
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)

Prices

$274.50 (ante mortem samples)
$449.70 (full set of necropsy samples)

Notes

May also consider Cryptosporidium ELISA on calves 3-30 days and Giardia ELISA on calves from 7 days to 6 months. Both of these are performed on fecal samples.

Also selenium on an EDTA whole blood sample or liver may be appropriate in some situations.

May want to consider Clostridium perfringens genotyping PCR for identification of the genes for specific toxins if Clostridium perfringens isolated.

If E. coli is isolated you may want to consider Escherichia coli genotyping PCR to further identify which genes for which adhesins and toxins are present.

BBL™ Port-a-cul™ and ParaPak® transport media are available

Ante mortem samples: Ship chilled and keep frozen samples frozen except for anaerobic transport systems and ParaPak®, which should be kept at room temperature.

Necropsy samples: Ship chilled and keep frozen samples frozen except for anaerobic transport systems and ParaPak®, which should be kept at room temperature. Protect fixed tissue from freezing.

To rule in/out acute BVD infection in a live calf, include EDTA whole blood for BVD PCR as the BVD Antigen Capture ELISA test on ear notch samples will only reliably detect BVD Persistently Infected animals. For post-mortem submissions, BVD FA on bowel tissue and BVD ACE on ear notch together will rule out acute and PI infection. Alternatively BVD PCR on fresh bowel can be added if ear notch has not been collected.

Bovine Metabolic Panel

Plan Code: MPTP

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Albumin ALB
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Aspartate Aminotransferase AST
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate BHBA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Non-Esterified Fatty Acid NEFA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Urea Nitrogen BUN
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.

Prices

$32.00

Notes

For BHBA and NEFA testing on the herd level, it is recommended to sample 12 animals per herd from cows that are 3-14 days in milk.

See Appendix A for more information on sampling and interpretation.

Ship chilled. Serum can be frozen and placed in chest freezer that is not a frost-free freezer to minimize the freeze-thaw cycles.

Bovine Neurologic Diagnostic Plan

Please strongly consider RABIES testing at your state health department.

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • (1) swab inoculated with CSF
  • (1) swab of meninges prior to contamination and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
  • CSF sample taken using sterile technique and placed in sterile red top tube
Field Necropsy Surcharge HISTONIB
  • Full set of fixed tissues placed in formalin, including multiple sections of brain and spinal cord.
Histopathology HISTO
  • Full set of fixed tissues placed in formalin, including multiple sections of brain and spinal cord.
Lead (blood) BDLEAD
  • EDTA or Heparin whole blood (lavender or green top tube) or fresh liver in sterile container
Lead (tissue) NCOX
  • EDTA or Heparin whole blood (lavender or green top tube) or fresh liver in sterile container
Listeria Culture LISTCUL
  • Fresh brain (preferably brainstem) placed in sterile container

Prices

$272.00

Price determined using Lead (tissue).

Notes

May also want to consider Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytology which requires CSF in EDTA tube (LTT) and (2) air dried slides of CSF.

Protect slides from formalin exposure. If salt toxicity is a possibility may want to consider mineral panel on fresh brain.

If whole head is submitted a rabies brain extraction fee will be applied. Please submit completed NYS rabies specimen history form and write out clear instructions on what additional diagnostic tests should be performed.Ship chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Please indicate if rabies testing is pending. See Tissues for Rabies Diagnosis for photos of brain samples needed for rabies testing.

Bovine Pinkeye Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • Conjunctival swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis) FA IBRFA
  • Conjunctival scraping on glass slide and air dried.
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • Conjunctival swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)

Prices

$96.00

Notes

Ship swab chilled and slide at room temperature.

Bovine Reproduction Bacteriology Panel A (formerly "Reproductive Bacteriology Cultures, Panel 4")

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • Uterine swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal) or semen, urethral, or preputial sample in sterile container.
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • Uterine swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal) or semen, urethral, or preputial sample in sterile container.
Ureaplasma Culture UREAPL
  • Uterine swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal) or semen, urethral, or preputial sample in sterile container.

Prices

$98.00

Notes

Ship chilled. This panel is often combined with Bovine Reproduction Bacteriology Panel B.

Bovine Respiratory (Acute) Diagnostic Plan

TTW fluid is a superior sample for detection of significant bacterial pathogens causing lower airway disease.

Results of nasal or pharyngeal swab cultures must be interpreted with caution as many bacterial organisms may be present as normal commensals in the upper respiratory tract. See Transtracheal wash procedure for more information. It may be helpful to collect and bank a serum sample for possible acute and convalescent serology.

Ante mortem

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • (1) swab inoculated with sample and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in viral transport media or a red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Bovine Coronavirus PCR XBCVPCR
  • Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in viral transport media or a red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline and also in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (IBR) PCR BHV1
  • Nasal swab, ocular swab, placenta, fetal kidney, lung, spleen, heart, liver (1 swab or 2g tissue)
Bovine Respiratory Disease Virus Isolation X-refer160
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus PCR BRS
  • (1) swab inoculated with sample and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in viral transport media or a red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • EDTA blood, plasma, serum (min. 2ml)
  • Tissue (min. 5g) and milk (min. 1ml/cow)
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Tracheal Wash Cytology TWE
  • (2) air dried slides of fluid
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
  • Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in viral transport media or a red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline and also in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)

Necropsy

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • (1) swab inoculated with sample and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Section of fresh lung
Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (IBR) PCR BHV1
  • * Preferred sample: Lung tissue
  • Other acceptable samples: Nasal swab, ocular swab
Bovine Respiratory Disease Virus Isolation X-refer160
  • Section of fresh lung
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus PCR BRS
  • * Preferred sample: Lung tissue
  • Other acceptable samples: Nasal or pharyngeal swabs
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • * Preferred sample: Loop of intestine
  • Other acceptable samples: 1) EDTA blood, plasma, serum (min. 2ml); 2) tissue (min. 5g)
Coronavirus PCR, Beta BCOR
  • * Preferred sample: Lung tissue
  • Other acceptable samples: Nasal or pharyngeal swabs
Field Necropsy Surcharge HISTONIB
  • Full set of tissues placed in formalin.
Histopathology HISTO
  • Full set of tissues placed in formalin.
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • (1) swab inoculated with sample and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Section of fresh lung

Prices

$386.00 (ante mortem samples)
$458.00 (full set of necropsy samples)

Notes

Testing for evidence of lungworms,Fecal Float may be warranteddepending on season. Also selenium on an EDTA whole blood sample or liver and vitamin E on a serum sample (separated) may be appropriate in some situations.

Paired acute and convalescent serum samples for BVDV SN, Type 1, IBR kELISA, and BRSV SN may be warranted in acute disease episodes.

For animals less than 61 days old, EDTA whole blood is required!

Ante mortem: Ship chilled except for slides which should be at room temperature.

Necropsy: Ship fresh tissue and swabs chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Calf Management Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
(8) Bulk Milk Aerobic Culture BTA
  • (2) 5ml samples Colostrum, as collected from cow
  • (2) 5ml samples Colostrum, as fed, collected from regular feeding utensil, after routine storage, if any
  • (2) 5ml samples Milk/milk replacer, as collected or mixed
  • (2) 5ml samples Milk/milk replacer, as fed, collected from regular feeding utensil, after routine storage, if any
(4) Environmental Count BEDID1
  • (2) bedding samples, clean stalls ready to occupy
  • (2) bedding samples, stalls with calves
Osmolality OSMO
  • (1) 5ml sample Milk Replacer or Electrolyte Supplement, as mixed for use
(10) Total Protein Plasma (by refractometer) TPREF
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) on 10 calves less than one week of age

Prices

$448.80

Notes

May also want to consider selenium on an EDTA whole blood sample in some situations.

Ship chilled.

Coagulation Panel, Large Animal

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Fibrinogen FIB
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)
Prothrombin Time PT
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)
aPTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) APTT
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)

Prices

$44.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Dermatology Diagnostic Plan

All skin biopsy submissions should be accompanied by a Dermatohistopathology Submission Form.

Deep lesion

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
  • +/- Swab from deep in tissue placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
Fungal Culture FUNGCM
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
  • +/- Swab from deep in tissue placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
Gram Stain GRAM
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
Histopathology (biopsy) HISTO
  • Multiple formalin fixed skin biopsies.
Parasite Identification PID
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)

Superficial lesion

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Cytology Smear Exam CYSMRE
  • (2) impression smears/skin scrapings/fluid aspirates for cytology placed on glass slides and air dried
Fungal Culture FUNGCM
  • (1) hair and skin scraping for fungal culture and gram stain sent in a sealable paper envelope
Gram Stain GRAM
  • (1) hair and skin scraping for fungal culture and gram stain sent in a sealable paper envelope
Histopathology (biopsy) HISTO
  • Multiple formalin fixed skin biopsies.
Skin Scraping SSE
  • (1) skin scraping for ectoparasite identification in an escape proof, nonporous container

Prices

Deep lesion: $264.50
Superficial lesion: $305.50

Notes

Deep lesion samples: Ship chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Superficial lesion samples: Ship at room temperature and protect from temperature extremes. Protect slides from formalin exposure.

Embryo Transfer Recipient Panel

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV) ELISA BLEL
  • Serum (separated)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Serum (separated)
Neospora IFA NEO
  • Serum (separated)

Prices

$28.90

Notes

Ship chilled.

Fever of Unknown Origin Diagnostic Plan

If case is chronic, virus isolation can be omitted if desired. If not previously performed a large animal chemistry panel may be warranted and serum (separated) or heparinized plasma would need to be submitted.

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
(3) Blood Culture, Aerobic BLDAER
  • (3) inoculated aerobic/fungal blood culture bottles
(3) Blood Culture, Anaerobic BLDAN
  • (3) inoculated anaerobic blood culture bottles
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • (2) tubes EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Hemogram (CBC), Automated
examination for blood parasites included
CBCA
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • (2) tubes EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
(2) Virus Isolation
nasal, whole blood
VI
  • (2) tubes EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
  • Nasal swab in 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)

Prices

$327.00
Chronic case with no virus isolation: $252.00

Notes

Ship chilled except for blood culture bottles and slides which are shipped at room temperature.

See Blood Culture Technique for more information. To order blood culture bottles go to shipping services or call 607.253.3935.

It may be helpful to collect and bank a serum sample for possible acute and convalescent serology.

This diagnostic plan is designed to detect a broad spectrum of systemic bacterial, viral, and some blood parasite causes of acute fever of unknown origin, as well as certain inflammatory changes which may assist in determining the underlying problems. Viral causes of illness are best detected acutely and most are unlikely to be detected in a patient with a chronic fever of unknown origin. This plan is intended to be used as an adjunct to targeted, disease-specific testing appropriate to the species, clinical history and geographic location or conditions. See Small Animal Internal Medicine, 5th Edition, 2014, Nelson RW and Couto CG; Chapter 88: Fever of Unknown Origin, pages 1279-1282 for other ideas of testing.

Large Animal Basic Workup

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Hemogram (CBC), Automated CBCA
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Large Animal Chemistry LA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)

Prices

$110.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Large Animal Renal Panel

Plan Code: LARGE RENAL

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Albumin ALB
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Anion Gap
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Bicarbonate HCO3FL
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Calcium CA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Chloride CL
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Creatinine CREAT
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Phosphate (Phosphorus) P
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Potassium K
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Sodium NA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Urea Nitrogen BUN
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma

Prices

$29.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Ruminant Liver Panel

Plan Code: RUMI LIVER

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
A/G Ratio
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Aspartate Aminotransferase AST
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate BHBA
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Creatine kinase CK
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase GGT
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Glutamate Dehydrogenase, blood GLDH
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Non-Esterified Fatty Acid NEFA
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Sorbitol Dehydrogenase, blood SDH
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Total Protein with Albumin and Globulins
  • 2ml Serum (separated)

Prices

$33.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Transition Cow Energy Panel

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate BHBA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or EDTA plasma
Non-Esterified Fatty Acid NEFA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or EDTA plasma

Prices

$23.00

Notes

For BHBA and NEFA testing on the herd level, it is recommended to sample 12 animals per herd from cows that are 3-14 days in milk.

See Appendix A for more information on sampling and interpretation.

If negative energy balance in prepartum cows is the primary concern you may want to consider sampling 12 prefresh animals (2-14 days precalving) and only performing NEFAs.

Ship chilled. Serum can be frozen and placed in chest freezer that is not a frost-free freezer to minimize the freeze-thaw cycles.

Transition Cow Management Diagnostic Plan (Transition Cow Energy Panel + Selenium + Vitamin E)

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate BHBA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Non-Esterified Fatty Acid NEFA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Vitamin E in serum NDIK
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.

Prices

$83.00

Notes

For BHBA and NEFA testing on the herd level, it is recommended to sample 12 animals per herd from cows that are 3-14 days in milk.

See Appendix A for more information on sampling and interpretation.

If negative energy balance in prepartum cows is the primary concern you may want to consider sampling 12 prefresh animals (2-14 days precalving) and only performing NEFAs.

In some herd situations there may be value in considering testing on the herd level for subclinical hypocalcemia and this could be done by sampling 12 fresh animals (0-2 days) and performing calcium only.

Ship chilled.

Virus Isolation, IBR/BVD Semen Panel

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Virus Isolation, IBR/BVD Semen Panel VISP
  • Semen in sterile container.

Prices

$93.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

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