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Bovine Diagnostic Plans and Panels

Updated September 29, 2021

The following diagnostic plans have been developed primarily as an educational tool to assist the veterinarian in designing a complete, although not exhaustive, diagnostic strategy. To encourage veterinarians to select only the tests that are deemed clinically appropriate in each situation, the price of the diagnostic plan is not discounted from the sum of the individual test costs.

For the test groupings labeled as panels, there may be a discounted price versus the costs of the individual tests. Diagnostic plans and panels can be requested by writing the complete name as the test request. If appropriate samples are included all tests will be performed.

Antimicrobial susceptibilities for culture isolates are available upon request at an additional charge.

Print Plans and Panels

Bovine Abortion Fetal Tissue Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
(3) Aerobic Bacterial Culture
Listeria included
AER
  • Submit 3 fresh tissue samples (3): lung, placenta including cotyledons, and abomasal contents - labelled and individually bagged; for individual aerobic culture
Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (IBR) PCR BHV1
  • Fresh kidney; if not available, use liver
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • Fresh lung; if not available, use spleen or heart
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 1 BVDSN
  • Fetal heart blood or pleural, pericardial or peritoneal effusion in a red top tube
Campylobacter fetus (Vibrio) FA CAMPYFA
  • Placenta with cotyledons; if not available, use fetal liver
Field Necropsy Surcharge HISTONIB
Histopathology HISTO
  • Formalin-fixed tissue: placenta, fetal liver, lung, brain, adrenal, heart, thymus, small intestine, kidney, fetal skin
(2) Leptospira PCR LEPTPCR
  • Submit 2 fresh tissue samples: placenta including cotyledons and fetal kidney; stomach contents acceptable
Neospora IFA NEO
  • Fetal heart blood or pleural, pericardial or peritoneal effusion in a red top tube

Notes

If full necropsy desired, see necropsy testing.

Ship fresh tissue chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

If placentitis present, consider adding Coxiella burnetii PCR (COXPCR) to placenta; if not available use abomasal contents; if neither available use lung

If indicated, add Virus Isolation (VI) on Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin)

Bovine Abortion Serology Panel + Selenium

Panel Code: BASPS

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 1 BVDSN
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Brucella Card Agglutination BCD
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) (BHV-1) kinetic ELISA IBRK
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Leptospira MAT, 5 standard serovars LEPTO
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Neospora IFA NEO
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • Maternal EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube

Price

$92.50

Notes

Ship chilled.

When acute and convalescent samples are/will be collected, for most serology assays they should always be tested in parallel, and paired results interpreted. If acute samples are submitted alone please indicated if all tests should be performed. If second, convalescent samples are later submitted, tests on both samples will be run in parallel and fees for both samples will be charged. To avoid testing acute samples twice, hold and submit with convalescent samples. If convalescent samples will not be collected, or when infectious abortion is strongly suspected due to history, immediate testing of acute sample may be warranted.

Bovine Chronic Ill Thrift / Weight Loss Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Anaplasmosis c-ELISA ANAEL
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Ear notch/skin biopsy (any age)
  • Milk or serum if >61 days of age
Cholesterol CHOL
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Fecal Floatation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • EDTA blood (tube >1/2 full)
Hemogram, Large Animal LA CBC
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Johne's fecal PCR JPCRO
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Large Animal Chemistry LA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Peritoneal Fluid Cytology PTFE
  • 1ml peritoneal fluid in EDTA (PTT); red top tube if culture anticipated plus 2-3 unstained smears.
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Triglycerides TRIG
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube
Vitamin E in serum NDIK
  • Serum (separated) in red top tube

Notes

*If hypocholesterolemia and hypotriglyeridemia is suspected in Holstein calves, submit serum or plasma for Cholesterol and Triglycerides testing plus 20-30 hairs with roots for APOB gene testing.

Please note that additional referral diagnostics to consider with this plan may include Anaplasma marginale PCR, Cholesterol Deficiency APOB Gene and Mycoplasma PCR. These referral diagnostics must be sent directly to their respective diagnostic testing laboratory for out of state submissions and those cases that are not under NY state contract. Visit our referral testing web page for referral lab contact information. Please contact the AHDC Veterinary Support Services team with any questions (vetsupport@cornell.edu, 607.253.3900).

Bovine Diarrhea, Adult (Acute) Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Bovine Coronavirus PCR XBCVPCR
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Fecal Floatation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Johne's fecal PCR JPCRO
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Salmonella culture SALM
  • One fecal sample (fill to line on container but do not overfill) can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery

Notes

Salmonella culture can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery. ParaPak® transport media is available.

Ship chilled, except for ParaPak® which should be kept at room temperature.

Bovine Diarrhea, Adult (Chronic) Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Serum (separated) or ear notch
Fecal Floatation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Johne's fecal PCR JPCRO
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Salmonella culture SALM
  • One fecal sample (fill to line on container but do not overfill) can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery

Notes

Ship chilled, expect for ParaPak®, which should be kept at room temperature.

Bovine Diarrhea, Calf (Acute) Diagnostic Plan

Ante mortem

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
  • Fecal swab placed in bacterial transport media
Anaerobic Bacterial Culture ANAER
  • Fecal swab placed in anaerobic transport media
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Fresh ear notch
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin CLPT
  • Frozen feces
Coronavirus PCR, Beta BCOR
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Gram Stain GRAM
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Fecal Floatation
If >3 days old
FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Rotavirus Antigen Detection Group A RLA
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Salmonella culture SALM
  • Fecal swab placed in anaerobic transport media
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
  • One fecal sample (fill to line on container but do not overfill) can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery

Necropsy

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
  • Intestinal swab placed in bacterial transport media
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER

To Diagnose Septicemia

  • Lung, kidney, spleen, lymph node (tracheobronchial preferred)
Anaerobic bacterial culture ANAER
  • Fresh tissue (>2-3 cm in diameter, minimum size)
  • Ligated loop of intestine
  • Swab or small tissue collected and immediately placed in anaerobic transport media
Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) FA BCVFA
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (fresh)
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Fresh ear notch
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (fresh)
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)
Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin CLPT
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)
Fecal Floatation
If >3 days old
FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Field Necropsy Surcharge HISTONIB
Gram Stain GRAM
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (fresh)
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)
Histopathology HISTO
  • Full set of tissues (including multiple sections of intestinal tract) placed in formalin.
Rotavirus FA ROTAFA
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (fresh)
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)
Salmonella culture SALM
  • +/- Intestinal swab placed in anaerobic transport media
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (fresh)
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (frozen)

Notes

May also consider Cryptosporidium ELISA on calves 3-30 days and Giardia ELISA on calves from 7 days to 6 months. Both of these are performed on fecal samples.

Also selenium on an EDTA whole blood sample or liver may be appropriate in some situations.

May want to consider Clostridium perfringens genotyping PCR for identification of the genes for specific toxins if Clostridium perfringens isolated.

If E. coli is isolated you may want to consider Escherichia coli genotyping PCR to further identify which genes for which adhesins and toxins are present.

BBL™ Port-a-cul™ and ParaPak® transport media are available.

Ante mortem samples: Ship chilled and keep frozen samples frozen except for anaerobic transport systems and ParaPak®, which should be kept at room temperature.

Necropsy samples: Ship chilled and keep frozen samples frozen except for anaerobic transport systems and ParaPak®, which should be kept at room temperature. Protect fixed tissue from freezing.

To rule in/out acute BVD infection in a live calf, include EDTA whole blood for BVD PCR as the BVD Antigen Capture ELISA test on ear notch samples will only reliably detect BVD Persistently Infected animals. For post-mortem submissions, BVD FA on bowel tissue and BVD ACE on ear notch together will rule out acute and PI infection. Alternatively BVD PCR on fresh bowel can be added if ear notch has not been collected.

Bovine Metabolic Panel

Panel Code: MPT P

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Albumin ALB
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Aspartate Aminotransferase AST
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate BHBA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Non-Esterified Fatty Acid NEFA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Urea Nitrogen BUN
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.

Price

$32.00

Notes

For BHBA and NEFA testing on the herd level, it is recommended to sample 12 animals per herd from cows that are 3-14 days in milk.

Ship chilled. Serum can be frozen and placed in chest freezer that is not a frost-free freezer to minimize the freeze-thaw cycles.

Bovine Neurologic Diagnostic Plan

Please strongly consider RABIES testing at your state health department.

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • (1) swab inoculated with CSF
  • (1) swab of meninges prior to contamination and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
  • CSF sample taken using sterile technique and placed in sterile red top tube
Field Necropsy Surcharge HISTONIB
Histopathology HISTO
  • Full set of fixed tissues placed in formalin, including multiple sections of brain and spinal cord.
Lead (blood) BDLEAD
  • EDTA or Heparin whole blood (lavender or green top tube) or fresh liver in sterile container
Lead (tissue) NCOX
  • EDTA or Heparin whole blood (lavender or green top tube) or fresh liver in sterile container
Listeria Culture LISTCUL
  • Fresh brain (preferably brainstem) placed in sterile container

Mineral Panel (Tissue, Feed) OR
Mineral/Electrolytes Panel

MINP
MINLY P
  • Fresh brain (preferably brainstem) placed in sterile container OR
  • EDTA or Heparin whole blood (lavender or green top tube)

Notes

May also want to consider Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytology which requires CSF in EDTA tube (LTT) and (2) air dried slides of CSF.

Protect slides from formalin exposure. If salt toxicity is a possibility may want to consider mineral panel on fresh brain.

If whole head is submitted a rabies brain extraction fee will be applied. Please submit completed NYS rabies specimen history form and write out clear instructions on what additional diagnostic tests should be performed. Ship chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Please indicate if rabies testing is pending. See Tissues for Rabies Diagnosis for photos of brain samples needed for rabies testing.

Bovine Pinkeye Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • Conjunctival swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (IBR) PCR BHV1
  • Conjunctival swab (in RTT with saline)
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • Conjunctival swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)

Notes

Ship swab chilled and slide at room temperature.

Bovine Reproduction Bacteriology Panel A (formerly "Reproductive Bacteriology Cultures, Panel 4")

Panel Code: BP4

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • Uterine swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal) or semen, urethral, or preputial sample in sterile container.
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • Uterine swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal) or semen, urethral, or preputial sample in sterile container.
Ureaplasma Culture UREAPL
  • Uterine swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal) or semen, urethral, or preputial sample in sterile container.

Price

$98.00

Notes

Ship chilled. This panel is often combined with Bovine Reproduction Bacteriology Panel B.

Bovine Respiratory (Acute) Diagnostic Plan

TTW fluid is a superior sample for detection of significant bacterial pathogens causing lower airway disease.

Results of nasal or pharyngeal swab cultures must be interpreted with caution as many bacterial organisms may be present as normal commensals in the upper respiratory tract. See Transtracheal wash procedure for more information. It may be helpful to collect and bank a serum sample for possible acute and convalescent serology.

Ante mortem

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • (1) swab inoculated with sample and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in viral transport media or a red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Bovine Coronavirus PCR XBCVPCR
  • Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in viral transport media or a red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline and also in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (IBR) PCR BHV1
  • Nasal swab, ocular swab, placenta, fetal kidney, lung, spleen, heart, liver (1 swab or 2g tissue)
Bovine Respiratory Disease Virus Isolation X-refer160
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus PCR BRS
  • (1) swab inoculated with sample and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Nasal swab, trans-tracheal wash, lung, trachea in red top tube with saline or leak proof screw top container
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Ag Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Fresh ear-notch/skin biopsy (i.e., NOT fixed), any age OR
  • 1mL serum, animal must be at least 61 days old OR
  • Milk from individual animal, any age
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • EDTA blood, plasma, serum (min. 2ml)
  • Tissue (min. 5g) and milk (min. 1ml/cow)
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Tracheal Wash Cytology TWE
  • Tracheal wash fluid in EDTA
  • Smears (at least 2-3 unstained smears preferred)
  • Also submit a red-top tube if culture is anticipated. 

Necropsy

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • Fresh lung - labelled and individually bagged
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER

To Diagnose Septicemia

  • Kidney, spleen, lymph node (tracheobronchial preferred)
Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (IBR) PCR BHV1
  • Fresh lung
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus PCR BRS
  • Fresh lung
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Ag Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Fresh ear-notch/skin biopsy, any age OR
  • Serum (animal must be at least 61 days old) OR
  • Milk from individual animal
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • Fresh loop of intestine, spleen or lymph node
Coronavirus PCR, Beta BCOR
  • Fresh lung
Bovine Parainfluenza type 3 PCR PI3PCR
  • Fresh lung
Field Necropsy Surcharge HISTONIB

Histopathology HISTO
  • Formalin-fixed tissue: full set of tissues
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • Fresh lung

Notes

If indicated, add Virus Isolation (VI) on Fresh tissue

If indicated, consider adding a Fecal Float for lungworm.

If indicated, consider adding Selenium on liver.

Full set of formalin fixed tissues: Skin, skeletal muscle, any enlarged lymph node, thyroid glands, lung, heart, liver, spleen, adrenal, kidney, stomach/forestomach, intestine, pancreas, colon, brain, all lesions.

Ante mortem: Ship chilled except for slides which should be at room temperature.

Necropsy: Ship fresh tissue and swabs chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Calf Management Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
(8) Bulk Milk Aerobic Culture BTA
  • (2) 5ml samples Colostrum, as collected from cow
  • (2) 5ml samples Colostrum, as fed, collected from regular feeding utensil, after routine storage, if any
  • (2) 5ml samples Milk/milk replacer, as collected or mixed
  • (2) 5ml samples Milk/milk replacer, as fed, collected from regular feeding utensil, after routine storage, if any
(4) Environmental Count BEDID1
  • (2) bedding samples, clean stalls ready to occupy
  • (2) bedding samples, stalls with calves
Osmolality OSMO
  • (1) 5ml sample Milk Replacer or Electrolyte Supplement, as mixed for use
Selenium (whole blood) SEL
  • 5 ml heparin whole blood
  • 5 ml EDTA whole blood
(10) Total Protein Plasma (by refractometer) TPREF
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) on 10 calves less than one week of age

Notes

May also want to consider selenium on an EDTA whole blood sample in some situations.

Ship chilled.

Coagulation Panel, Large Animal

Panel Code: COAGPL

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Fibrinogen FIB
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)
Prothrombin Time PT
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)
aPTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) APTT
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)

Price

$44.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Dermatology Diagnostic Plan

All skin biopsy submissions should be accompanied by a Dermatohistopathology Submission Form.

Deep lesion

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
  • +/- Swab from deep in tissue placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
Fungal Culture FUNGCM
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
  • +/- Swab from deep in tissue placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
Gram Stain GRAM
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
Histopathology (biopsy) HISTO
  • Multiple formalin fixed skin biopsies.
Parasite Identification PID
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)

Superficial lesion

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Fungal Culture FUNGCM
  • (1) hair and skin scraping for fungal culture and gram stain sent in a sealable paper envelope
Gram Stain GRAM
  • (1) hair and skin scraping for fungal culture and gram stain sent in a sealable paper envelope
Histopathology (biopsy) HISTO
  • Multiple formalin fixed skin biopsies.
Skin Scraping SSE
  • (1) skin scraping for ectoparasite identification in an escape proof, nonporous container

Notes

Deep lesion samples: Ship chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Superficial lesion samples: Ship at room temperature and protect from temperature extremes. Protect slides from formalin exposure.

Embryo Transfer Recipient Panel

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV) ELISA BLEL
  • Serum (separated)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Antigen Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • Serum (separated)
Neospora IFA NEO
  • Serum (separated)

Price

$28.90

Notes

Ship chilled.

Fever of Unknown Origin Diagnostic Plan

If case is chronic, virus isolation can be omitted if desired. If not previously performed a large animal chemistry panel may be warranted and serum (separated) or heparinized plasma would need to be submitted.

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
(3) Blood Culture, Aerobic BLDAER
  • (3) inoculated aerobic/fungal blood culture bottles
(3) Blood Culture, Anaerobic BLDAN
  • (3) inoculated anaerobic blood culture bottles
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Ag Capture ELISA (ACE) BVDACE
  • 1 ml serum or fresh ear-notch/skin biopsy

Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • (2) tubes EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Hemogram (CBC), Automated
examination for blood parasites included
CBCA
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • (2) tubes EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Large Animal Chemistry Panel LA P
  • 2 ml separated serum or heparinized plasma
(2) Virus Isolation
nasal, whole blood
VI
  • (2) tubes EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
  • Nasal swab in 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)

Notes

Ship chilled except for blood culture bottles and slides which are shipped at room temperature.

See Blood Culture Technique for more information. To order blood culture bottles go to shipping services or call 607.253.3935.

It may be helpful to collect and bank a serum sample for possible acute and convalescent serology.

This diagnostic plan is designed to detect a broad spectrum of systemic bacterial, viral, and some blood parasite causes of acute fever of unknown origin, as well as certain inflammatory changes which may assist in determining the underlying problems. Viral causes of illness are best detected acutely and most are unlikely to be detected in a patient with a chronic fever of unknown origin. This plan is intended to be used as an adjunct to targeted, disease-specific testing appropriate to the species, clinical history and geographic location or conditions. See Small Animal Internal Medicine, 5th Edition, 2014, Nelson RW and Couto CG; Chapter 88: Fever of Unknown Origin, pages 1279-1282 for other ideas of testing.

Large Animal Basic Workup

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Hemogram (CBC), Automated CBCA
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Large Animal Chemistry LA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)

Notes

Ship chilled.

Large Animal Renal Panel

Plan Code: LARGE RENAL

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Albumin ALB
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Anion Gap
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Calcium CA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Chloride CL
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Creatinine CREAT
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Phosphate (Phosphorus) P
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Potassium K
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Sodium NA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Urea Nitrogen BUN
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma

Price

$29.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Ruminant Liver Panel

Plan Code: RUMI LIVER

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
A/G Ratio
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Aspartate Aminotransferase AST
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate BHBA
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Creatine kinase CK
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase GGT
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Glutamate Dehydrogenase, blood GLDH
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Non-Esterified Fatty Acid NEFA
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Sorbitol Dehydrogenase, blood SDH
  • 2ml Serum (separated)
Total Protein with Albumin and Globulins
  • 2ml Serum (separated)

Price

$33.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Transition Cow Energy Panel

Panel Code: TRANS PANEL

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate BHBA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or EDTA plasma
Non-Esterified Fatty Acid NEFA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or EDTA plasma

Price

$23.00

Notes

For BHBA and NEFA testing on the herd level, it is recommended to sample 12 animals per herd from cows that are 3-14 days in milk.

If negative energy balance in prepartum cows is the primary concern you may want to consider sampling 12 prefresh animals (2-14 days precalving) and only performing NEFAs.

Ship chilled. Serum can be frozen and placed in chest freezer that is not a frost-free freezer to minimize the freeze-thaw cycles.

Transition Cow Management Diagnostic Plan (Transition Cow Energy Panel + Selenium + Vitamin E)

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Beta-Hydroxybutyrate BHBA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Non-Esterified Fatty Acid NEFA
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Vitamin E in serum NDIK
  • Serum (separated), do not use serum separator tubes.

Notes

For BHBA and NEFA testing on the herd level, it is recommended to sample 12 animals per herd from cows that are 3-14 days in milk.

If negative energy balance in prepartum cows is the primary concern you may want to consider sampling 12 prefresh animals (2-14 days precalving) and only performing NEFAs.

In some herd situations there may be value in considering testing on the herd level for subclinical hypocalcemia and this could be done by sampling 12 fresh animals (0-2 days) and performing calcium only.

Ship chilled.

Virus Isolation, IBR/BVD Semen Panel

Panel Code: VISP

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Virus Isolation, IBR/BVD Semen Panel VISP
  • Semen in sterile container.

Price

$93.00

Notes

Ship chilled.