Camelid Diagnostic Plans and Panels

Updated November 18, 2019

The following diagnostic plans have been developed primarily as an educational tool to assist the veterinarian in designing a complete, although not exhaustive, diagnostic strategy. To encourage veterinarians to select only the tests that are deemed clinically appropriate in each situation, the price of the diagnostic plan is not discounted from the sum of the individual test costs.

For the test groupings labeled as panels, there may be a discounted price versus the costs of the individual tests. Diagnostic plans and panels can be requested by writing the complete name as the test request. If appropriate samples are included all tests will be performed.

Antimicrobial susceptibilities for culture isolates are available upon request at an additional charge.

Print Plans and Panels

Camelid Abortion Fetal Tissue Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
(3) Aerobic bacterial culture
Listeria included
AER
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) FA BVDFA
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 1 BVDSN
  • Heart blood in sterile red top tube
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 2 BVDSN2
  • Heart blood in sterile red top tube
(2) Campylobacter fetus (Vibrio) FA CAMPYFA
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Campylobacter jejuni Culture CAMPYJ
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Chlamydophila FA CHFA
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Chlamydophila PCR CHPCR
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Coxiella burnetii PCR COXPCR
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Equine Herpesvirus-1 (Rhinopneumonitis) FA EHV1FA
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Field Necropsy Surcharge HISTONIB
  • Formalin fixed tissue: placenta, liver, lung, brain, adrenal, heart, thymus, small intestine, kidney, fetal skin
Histopathology HISTO
  • Formalin fixed tissue: placenta, liver, lung, brain, adrenal, heart, thymus, small intestine, kidney, fetal skin
Leptospira PCR LEPTPCR
  • Placenta/cotyledon. If not available, fetal lung, stomach or abomasal content
Leptospira PCR LEPTPCR
  • Fetal kidney. If not available, fetal lung, stomach or abomasal content
Toxoplasma gondii lgG ELISA TOXEL
  • Heart blood in sterile red top tube
Toxoplasmosis FA TOXFA
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin
Virus Isolation VI
  • Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin

Prices

$711.50/fetus

Notes

May also want to consider adding Selenium to fetal liver especially if stillbirths and/or neonatal deaths are involved.

Ship fresh tissue chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing. Kit is available. See Abortion Kit, Ruminant for more complete instructions. If full necropsy desired, see Necropsy Testing.

Camelid Abortion Serology Panel + Selenium

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 1 BVDSN
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 2 BVDSN2
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Brucella Card Agglutination BCD
  • Clotted whole blood
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Coxiella burnettii ELISA COXEL
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Equine Herpesvirus-1 (Rhinopneumonitis) SN EHV1SN
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Equine Rhinovirus-1 (ER-A) (Equine Rhinitis A Virus) SN ERAVSN
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Leptospira MAT, 5 standard serovars LEPTO
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • Maternal EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Toxoplasma gondii lgG ELISA TOXEL
  • Maternal serum (separated)

Prices

$147.00 single
$247.00 paired (1 selenium)

Notes

Ship Chilled. When acute and convalescent samples are/will be collected, for most serology assays they should always be tested in parallel, and paired results interpreted. If acute samples are submitted alone please indicated if all tests should be performed. If second, convalescent samples are later submitted, tests on both samples will be run in parallel and fees for both samples will be charged. To avoid testing acute samples twice, hold and submit with convalescent samples. If convalescent samples will not be collected, or when infectious abortion is strongly suspected due to history, immediate testing of acute sample may be warranted.

Camelid Chronic Ill Thrift / Weight Loss Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Fecal Floatation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Hemogram, Routine LA CBC
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Johne's AGID JAGID
  • Serum (separated)
Johne's Fecal Culture JCNB
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Large Animal Chemistry LA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Ref: Mycoplasma PCR RMYCPCR
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Ref: Vitamin D, 25-hyd RVITD
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Vitamin E in serum NDIK
  • Serum (separated)

Prices

$435.25

Notes

* Haemonchus ID is in investigational mode, but should be validated soon. This test is available currently if requested. There must be >100 Strongyle EPG to perform this test. This will incur an additional charge.

Camelid Diarrhea Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Camelid Enteric Coronavirus PCR XCMECPCR
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Fecal Floatation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
Johne's AGID JAGID
  • Serum (separated)
Salmonella culture SALM
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g)
  • One fecal sample (1 g, fill to line on container but do not overfill) can be put in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery

Prices

$100.00

Notes

Johne's Culture, Non-Bovine on fresh feces may also be warranted. The lag time for culture is 12-16 weeks although positive samples may be shorter. In neonatal crias an Aerobic bacterial culture and a Rotavirus Latex Antigen Detection, Group A on feces should also be considered.

Ship chilled, except for ParaPak® which should be kept at room temperature. ParaPak® transport media is available.

Camelid Liver Panel (Large Animal Liver Panel + NEFA)

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
A/G Ratio
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Albumin ALB
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Aspartate Aminotransferase AST
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Bilirubin Panel (total, direct, indirect) BILIP
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Creatine kinase CK
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase GGT
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Globulin
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Glutamate Dehydrogenase, blood GLDH
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Non-Esterified Fatty Acid NEFA
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Sorbitol Dehydrogenase, blood SDH
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Total Protein, blood TP
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Triglycerides TRIG
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)

Prices

$54.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Camelid Neurologic Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • (1) swab inoculated with CSF
  • (1) swab of meninges prior to contamination and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
  • CSF sample taken using sterile technique and placed in sterile red top tube
Field Necropsy Surcharge HISTONIB
Histopathology HISTO
  • Full set of fixed tissues placed in formalin, including multiple sections of brain and spinal cord.
Lead (blood) BDLEAD
  • EDTA or Heparin whole blood (lavender or green top tube) or fresh liver in sterile container
Lead (tissue) NCOX
  • EDTA or Heparin whole blood (lavender or green top tube) or fresh liver in sterile container
Listeria Culture LISTCUL
  • Fresh brain (cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem) placed in sterile container
Virus Isolation VI
  • CSF sample taken using sterile technique and placed in sterile red top tube
  • Fresh brain (cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem) placed in sterile container
West Nile Virus (WNV) PCR WNVPCR
  • CSF sample taken using sterile technique and placed in sterile red top tube
  • Fresh brain (cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem) placed in sterile container

Prices

$384.90

Notes

May also want to consider Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytology which requires CSF in EDTA tube (LTT) and (2) air dried slides of CSF. Protect slides from formalin exposure. If whole head is submitted a rabies brain extraction fee will be applied. Please submit completed NYS rabies specimen history form and write out clear instructions on what additional diagnostic tests should be performed.

For Lead, please choose either the blood- or tissue-based test.

Ship chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing. Please indicate if rabies testing is pending.

See Tissues for Rabies Diagnosis for photos of brain samples needed for rabies testing.

Camelid Respiratory (Acute) Diagnostic Plan

Testing for evidence of lungworms, Fecal Float may be warranted depending on season. Also selenium on an EDTA whole blood sample or liver and vitamin E on a serum sample (separated) may be appropriate in some situations. Limited serology testing is available but paired acute and convalescent serum samples for BRSV SN may be warranted in acute disease episodes.

Ante mortem

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • (1) swab inoculated with sample and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube (alternatively can use viral transport media)
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred)
Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) FA BCVFA
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Bovine Respir Syncytial Virus (BRSV) FA BRSVFA
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube
Camelid Respiratory Disease Virus Isolation X-refer163
  • Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in viral transport media or a red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline
Chlamydophila PCR CHPCR
  • Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in viral transport media or a red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Hemogram, Routine LA CBC
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • (1) swab inoculated with sample and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
Tracheal Wash Cytology TWE
  • (2) air dried slides of fluid
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube

Necropsy

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • (1) swab inoculated with sample and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Section of fresh lung
Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) FA BCVFA
  • Section of fresh lung
Bovine Respir Syncytial Virus (BRSV) FA BRSVFA
  • Section of fresh lung
Camelid Respiratory Disease Virus Isolation X-refer163
  • Section of fresh lung
Chlamydophila PCR CHPCR
  • Section of fresh lung
Field Necropsy Surcharge HISTONIB
Histopathology HISTO
  • Full set of tissues placed in formalin.
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • (1) swab inoculated with sample and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Section of fresh lung
Virus Isolation VI
  • Section of fresh lung

Prices

$384.00 (ante mortem sample)
$396.00 (full set of necropsy samples)

Notes

Ship chilled except for slides which should be kept at room temperature. Ship fresh tissue chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

TTW fluid is a superior sample for detection of significant bacterial pathogens causing lower airway disease. Results of nasal or pharyngeal swab cultures must be interpreted with caution as many bacterial organisms may be present as normal commensals in the upper respiratory tract. See Transtracheal Wash Procedure for more information. It may be helpful to collect and bank a serum sample for possible acute and convalescent serology.

Coagulation Panel, Large Animal

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Fibrinogen FIB
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)
Prothrombin Time PT
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)
aPTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) APTT
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)

Prices

$44.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Dermatology Diagnostic Plan

All skin biopsy submissions should be accompanied by a Dermatohistopathology Submission Form.

Deep lesion

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
  • +/- Swab from deep in tissue placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
Fungal Culture FUNGCM
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
  • +/- Swab from deep in tissue placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
Gram Stain GRAM
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
Histopathology (biopsy) HISTO
  • Multiple formalin fixed skin biopsies.
Parasite Identification PID
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)

Superficial lesion

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Cytology Smear Exam CYSMRE
  • (2) impression smears/skin scrapings/fluid aspirates for cytology placed on glass slides and air dried
Fungal Culture FUNGCM
  • (1) hair and skin scraping for fungal culture and gram stain sent in a sealable paper envelope
Gram Stain GRAM
  • (1) hair and skin scraping for fungal culture and gram stain sent in a sealable paper envelope
Histopathology (biopsy) HISTO
  • Multiple formalin fixed skin biopsies.
Skin Scraping SSE
  • (1) skin scraping for ectoparasite identification in an escape proof, nonporous container

Prices

Deep lesion: $264.50
Superficial lesion: $305.50

Notes

Deep lesion samples: Ship chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Superficial lesion samples: Ship at room temperature and protect from temperature extremes. Protect slides from formalin exposure.

Fever of Unknown Origin Diagnostic Plan

If case is chronic, virus isolation can be omitted if desired. If not previously performed a large animal chemistry panel may be warranted and serum (separated) or heparinized plasma would need to be submitted.

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
(3) Blood Culture, Aerobic BLDAER
  • (3) inoculated aerobic/fungal blood culture bottles
(3) Blood Culture, Anaerobic BLDAN
  • (3) inoculated anaerobic blood culture bottles
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • (2) tubes EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Hemogram (CBC), Automated
examination for blood parasites included
CBCA
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • (2) tubes EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
(2) Virus Isolation
nasal, whole blood
VI
  • (2) tubes EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
  • Nasal swab in 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)

Prices

$327.00
Chronic case with no virus isolation: $252.00

Notes

Ship chilled except for blood culture bottles and slides which are shipped at room temperature.

See Blood Culture Technique for more information. To order blood culture bottles go to shipping services or call 607.253.3935.

It may be helpful to collect and bank a serum sample for possible acute and convalescent serology.

This diagnostic plan is designed to detect a broad spectrum of systemic bacterial, viral, and some blood parasite causes of acute fever of unknown origin, as well as certain inflammatory changes which may assist in determining the underlying problems. Viral causes of illness are best detected acutely and most are unlikely to be detected in a patient with a chronic fever of unknown origin. This plan is intended to be used as an adjunct to targeted, disease-specific testing appropriate to the species, clinical history and geographic location or conditions. See Small Animal Internal Medicine, 5th Edition, 2014, Nelson RW and Couto CG; Chapter 88: Fever of Unknown Origin, pages 1279-1282 for other ideas of testing.

Large Animal Basic Workup

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Hemogram (CBC), Automated CBCA
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Large Animal Chemistry LA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)

Prices

$110.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Large Animal Renal Panel

Plan Code: LARGE RENAL

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Albumin ALB
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Anion Gap
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Bicarbonate HCO3FL
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Calcium CA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Chloride CL
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Creatinine CREAT
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Phosphate (Phosphorus) P
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Potassium K
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Sodium NA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Urea Nitrogen BUN
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma

Prices

$29.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Small Ruminant/Camelid Pinkeye Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic bacterial culture AER
  • Conjunctival swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
Chlamydophila PCR CHPCR
  • Conjunctival swab in sterile tube with 0.5ml saline to keep moist (not wet).
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • Conjunctival swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)

Prices

$108.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

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