Business Hours - Monday-Friday: 8:00am to 5:00pm; Saturdays: 9:00am-1:00pm

Caprine Diagnostic Plans and Panels

The following diagnostic plans have been developed primarily as an educational tool to assist the veterinarian in designing a complete, although not exhaustive, diagnostic strategy. To encourage veterinarians to select only the tests that are deemed clinically appropriate in each situation, the price of the diagnostic plan is not discounted from the sum of the individual test costs.

For the test groupings labeled as panels, there may be a discounted price versus the costs of the individual tests. Diagnostic plans and panels can be requested by writing the complete name as the test request. If appropriate samples are included all tests will be performed.

Antimicrobial susceptibilities for culture isolates are available upon request at an additional charge.

Print Plans and Panels

Caprine Abortion Fetal Tissue Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
(3) Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • Submit 3 fresh tissue samples: placenta, lung, and stomach contents - labelled in individual containers for 3 aerobic cultures
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • Fresh lung; if not available, use spleen or heart 
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 1 BVDSN
  • Fetal heart blood or pleural, pericardial or peritoneal effusion in a red top tube 
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 2 BVDSN2
  • Fetal heart blood or pleural, pericardial or peritoneal effusion in a red top tube 
(2) Campylobacter fetus (Vibrio) FA CAMPYFA
  • Submit 2 fresh tissue samples: placenta including cotyledons and liver. If either one is not available, use abomasal contents in a red top tube
Campylobacter jejuni Culture CAMPYJ
  • Liver preferred; placenta if liver unavailable
Chlamydophila abortus PCR CABO
  • Placenta including cotyledon; if no placenta use lung
Cache Valley Fever SN CVFSN
  • Heart blood, pericardial, peritoneal or thoracic effusion
Histopathology HISTO
  • Formalin fixed tissue: placenta, liver, lung, brain, adrenal, heart, thymus, small intestine, kidney, fetal skin
(2) Leptospira PCR LEPTPCR
  • Submit 2 fresh tissue samples: placenta including cotyledons and fetal kidney preferred; stomach contents acceptable
Neospora IFA NEO
  • Fetal heart blood or pleural, pericardial or peritoneal effusion in a red top tube 
Toxoplasma gondii lgG MAT
  • Fetal heart blood or pleural, pericardial or peritoneal effusion in a red top tube 
Toxoplasmosis FA TOXFA
  • Placenta, spleen, brain, lung, liver

Notes

If full necropsy desired, see necropsy testing

Ship fresh tissue chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

If placentitis present, add Coxiella burnetii PCR (COXPCR) to placenta (abomasal contents or lung if placenta not available).

If indicated, add Border Disease SN (OBDVSN) to heart blood (serum), peritoneal, pleural or pericardial fluid in sterile red top tube.

If indicated, add Selenium on fetal liver.

If indicated, add Virus Isolation (VI) (ex: Caprine Herpesvirus 1) on fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal contents, kidney, liver, heart, adrenal, skin.

Caprine Abortion Serology Panel + Selenium

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Brucella Fluorescence Polarization Assay BRFPA
  • Clotted whole blood
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 1 BVDSN
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) SN, Type 2 BVDSN2
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Cache Valley SN CVFSN
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Caprine Herpesvirus SN CAHVSN
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Chlamydophila CF CHCF
  • 1ml Serum
Leptospira MAT, 5 standard serovars LEPTO
  • Maternal serum (separated)
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • Maternal EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Maternal heparin whole blood (green top tube)
Toxoplasma gondii MAT
  • Maternal serum (separated)

Prices

$129.00 single
$229.00 paired (1 selenium)

Notes

Ship chilled.

When acute and convalescent samples are/will be collected, for most serology assays they should always be tested in parallel, and paired results interpreted. If acute samples are submitted alone please indicated if all tests should be performed. If second, convalescent samples are later submitted, tests on both samples will be run in parallel and fees for both samples will be charged. To avoid testing acute samples twice, hold and submit with convalescent samples. If convalescent samples will not be collected, or when infectious abortion is strongly suspected due to history, immediate testing of acute sample may be warranted.

Caprine Diarrhea Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Fecal Floatation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Johne's AGID JAGID
  • Serum (separated)
Johne's Fecal PCR, Caprine JGPCR
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Salmonella culture SALM
  • Fecal swab or intestinal swab in Amies transport media
  • Fresh tied off loop of bowel (ileum or jejunum) in sterile container
  • Fresh fecal sample in sterile container (fill to line on container but do not overfill) or in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery
Selenium, tissue NCRJ
  • Fresh liver
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)

Notes

Ship chilled, except for ParaPak® which should be kept at room temperature.

Johne's Fecal PCR, Caprine test on fresh feces may also be warranted for animals 6 months of age and older. In neonatal kids an Aerobic bacterial culture and a Rotavirus Latex Antigen Detection, Group A on feces should also be considered.

Caprine Neonatal Diarrhea Plan

Ante mortem

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof sterile container
  • Fecal swab in Amies transport media
Anaerobic Bacterial Culture ANAER
  • Fecal swab in anaerobic transport media
Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin CLPT
  • Fresh feces refrigerated and less than 24 hours old or frozen

Fecal Float (if >3 days of age)

FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Rotavirus Antigen Detection Grp A RLA
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Salmonella Culture SALM
  • Fecal swab in Amies transport media
  • Fresh fecal sample in sterile container (fill to line on container but do not overfill) or in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)

Necropsy

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof sterile container
  • Intestinal swab or fecal swab in Amies transport media
  • Fresh intestine in sterile container

Aerobic Bacterial Culture

AER

To Diagnose Septicemia

  • Kidney, spleen, lymph node (tracheobronchial preferred)
Anaerobic Bacterial Culture

ANAER
  • Tied off loop of bowel refrigerated and less than 24 hour old or frozen
  • Intestinal swab or fecal swab in anaerobic transport media shipped at room temperature
Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin CLPT
  • Feces or intestinal contents refrigerated and less than 24 hours old or frozen
  • Tied off loop of bowel refrigerated and less than 24 hours old or frozen

Fecal Float (if >3 days of age)

FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Histopathology HISTO
  • Formalin-fixed tissue: full set of tissues (including multiple sections of intestinal tract)
Rotavirus Antigen Detection Grp A RLA
  • Tied off loop of bowel with contents (fresh)
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Salmonella Culture SALM
  • Fecal swab or intestinal swab in Amies transport media
  • Fresh tied off loop of bowel (ileum or jejunum) in sterile container
  • Fresh fecal sample in sterile container (fill to line on container but do not overfill) or in ParaPak® transport media to assist with Salmonella recovery
Selenium, tissue NCRJ
  • Fresh liver

Notes

Ante mortem: Ship chilled except for slides which should be kept at room temperature.

Necropsy: Ship fresh tissue and swab chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Caprine Neurologic Diagnostic Plan

Please strongly consider rabies testing at your state health department.

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • (1) swab inoculated with CSF
  • (1) swab of meninges prior to contamination and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
  • CSF sample taken using sterile technique and placed in aerobic blood culture media (preferred) or in sterile red top tube
Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytology CSFE
  • CSF in EDTA (purple top tube)
Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus PCR EEEPCR
  • Brain or spinal cord
  • CSF
  • EDTA Whole Blood
Histopathology HISTO
  • Full set of fixed tissues placed in formalin, including multiple sections of brain and spinal cord.
Lead (blood) BDLEAD
  • EDTA or Heparin whole blood (lavender or green top tube)
Lead (tissue) NCOX
  • Fresh liver in sterile container
Listeria Culture LISTCUL
  • Fresh brain (preferably brainstem) placed in sterile container
Mineral/Electrolytes Panel MINLY P
  • Serum or heparinized plasma (separated)
Mineral Panel (Tissue) MINP
  • To diagnose hypernatremia postmortem
  • Fresh brain (preferably brainstem) placed in sterile container
Selenium, whole blood  SEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)
Selenium, tissue NCRJ
  • Fresh liver
West Nile Virus (WNV) PCR WNVPCR
  • CSF, brain or spinal cord
West Nile Virus (WNV) SN WNVSN
  • Serum, acute and convalescent

Notes

Ship chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing. Please indicate if rabies testing is pending.

Consider mosquito-borne virus testing based on compatible clinical signs, season, and geographic location.

Note that EEE is not reliably detected in EDTA whole blood (CSF and brain tissue are preferred), however EEE PCR is warranted on EDTA whole blood if other preferred samples are not available.

See Tissues for Rabies Diagnosis for photos of brain samples needed for rabies testing.

May also want to consider Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytology which requires CSF in EDTA tube (LTT) and (2) air dried slides of CSF. Protect slides from formalin exposure.

If whole head is submitted a rabies brain extraction fee will be applied. Please submit completed NYS rabies specimen history form and write out clear instructions on what additional diagnostic tests should be performed.

Please note that additional referral diagnostics to consider with this plan may include Equine encephalomyelitis PRNT Panel (EEE, WEE, VEE). These referral diagnostics must be sent directly to their respective diagnostic testing laboratory for out of state submissions and those cases that are not under NY state contract. Visit our referral testing web page for referral lab contact information. Please contact the AHDC Veterinary Support Services team with any questions (vetsupport@cornell.edu, 607.253.3900).

Coagulation Panel, Large Animal

Panel Code: COAGPL

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Fibrinogen FIB
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)
Prothrombin Time PT
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)
aPTT (Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time) APTT
  • 2ml separated citrate plasma in plastic or siliconized glass tube (blue top tube and then separated and transferred)

Price

$44.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Dermatology Diagnostic Plan

All skin biopsy submissions should be accompanied by a Dermatohistopathology Submission Form.

Deep lesion

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
  • +/- Swab from deep in tissue placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
Fungal Culture FUNGCM
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
  • +/- Swab from deep in tissue placed in aerobic transport media (Amies with charcoal)
Fungal KOH Fluorescent Stain FUNGKOH
  • Nails, skin scrapings or 10-12 hairs from border lesion
  • Fresh tissue or bodily fluids (systemic fungi/yeast)
  • Prepared slide
Gram Stain GRAM
  • (2) fresh skin biopsies in plain red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)
Histopathology (biopsy) HISTO
  • Multiple formalin fixed skin biopsies.

Superficial lesion

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Fungal Culture FUNGCM
  • (1) hair and skin scraping for fungal culture and gram stain sent in a sealable paper envelope
Fungal KOH Fluorescent Stain FUNGKOH
  • Nails, skin scrapings or 10-12 hairs from border lesion
  • Fresh tissue or bodily fluids (systemic fungi/yeast)
  • Prepared slide
Gram Stain GRAM
  • (1) hair and skin scraping for fungal culture and gram stain sent in a sealable paper envelope
Histopathology (biopsy) HISTO
  • Multiple formalin fixed skin biopsies.
Skin Scraping SSE
  • (1) skin scraping for ectoparasite identification in an escape proof, nonporous container

Notes

Deep lesion samples: Ship chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

Superficial lesion samples: Ship at room temperature and protect from temperature extremes. Protect slides from formalin exposure.

Caprine Fever of Unknown Origin Diagnostic Plan

If case is chronic, virus isolation can be omitted if desired. If not previously performed a large animal chemistry panel may be warranted and serum (separated) or heparinized plasma would need to be submitted.

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • To diagnose septicemia post-mortem; fresh lung, kidney, spleen, and lymph node (tracheobronchial preferred)
(3) Blood Culture, Aerobic BLDAER
  • (3) inoculated aerobic/fungal blood culture bottles
(3) Blood Culture, Anaerobic BLDAN
  • (3) inoculated anaerobic blood culture bottles
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Hemogram, Large Animal
examination for blood parasites included
LA CBC
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Large Animal Chemistry Panel LA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube) or
  • Serum (separated)
Virus Isolation
nasal, whole blood
VI
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
  • Nasal swab in 0.5ml sterile saline to keep moist (not wet)

Notes

Ship chilled except for blood culture bottles and slides which are shipped at room temperature.

See Blood Culture Technique for more information. To order blood culture bottles go to shipping services or call 607.253.3935.

It may be helpful to collect and bank a serum sample for possible acute and convalescent serology.

This diagnostic plan is designed to detect a broad spectrum of systemic bacterial, viral, and some blood parasite causes of acute fever of unknown origin, as well as certain inflammatory changes which may assist in determining the underlying problems. Viral causes of illness are best detected acutely and most are unlikely to be detected in a patient with a chronic fever of unknown origin. This plan is intended to be used as an adjunct to targeted, disease-specific testing appropriate to the species, clinical history and geographic location or conditions. See Small Animal Internal Medicine, 5th Edition, 2014, Nelson RW and Couto CG; Chapter 88: Fever of Unknown Origin, pages 1279-1282 for other ideas of testing.

Large Animal Basic Workup

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Hemogram, Large Animal LA CBC
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Large Animal Chemistry LA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube) or
  • Serum (separated)

Notes

Ship chilled.

Large Animal Renal Panel

Plan Code: LARGE RENAL

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Albumin ALB
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Anion Gap
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Calcium CA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Chloride CL
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Creatinine CREAT
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Phosphate (Phosphorus) P
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Potassium K
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Sodium NA
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma
Urea Nitrogen BUN
  • 1ml Serum (separated) or heparinized plasma

Price

$29.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Ruminant Liver Panel

Plan Code: RUMI LIVER

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
A/G Ratio
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Albumin ALB
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Aspartate Aminotransferase AST
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Bilirubin Panel (total, direct, indirect) BILIP
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Creatine kinase CK
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase GGT
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Globulin
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Glutamate Dehydrogenase, blood GLDH
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Sorbitol Dehydrogenase, blood SDH
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Total Protein with Albumin and Globulins
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)
Triglycerides TRIG
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube).
  • Serum (separated)

Price

$33.00

Notes

Ship chilled.

Caprine Respiratory (Acute) Diagnostic Plan

Ante-mortem

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • Deep nasopharyngeal swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal preferred)
  • Swab of transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or swab of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in Amies transport media or BAL/TTW fluid in red top tube
Anaerobic Bacterial Culture ANAER
  • Swab of transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or swab of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in anaerobic transport media
Bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus PCR PI3
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred sample) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube (swabs not acceptable)
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus PCR BRS
  • Bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube (alternatively can use viral transport media)
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred)
Chlamydophila PCR CHPCR
  • Bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube (alternatively can use viral transport media)
  • Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred)
Fecal Floatation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Hemogram, Large Animal LA CBC
  • Anemia due to parasitism in small ruminants may cause clinical signs of tachypnea and dyspnea
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube)
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • (1) swab inoculated with sample and placed in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
  • Bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in red top tube (alternatively can use viral transport media)
  • Transtracheal wash (TTW) (preferred)
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)
Small Ruminant Lentivirus cELISA SRLEL
  • Serum (separated)
Tracheal Wash Cytology TWE
  • Tracheal wash fluid in EDTA
  • Smears (at least 2-3 unstained smears preferred
  • Also submit a red-top tube if culture is anticipated. 

Necropsy

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • Deep nasopharyngeal swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal preferred)
  • Section of fresh lung
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER

To Diagnose Septicemia

  • Lung, kidney, spleen, lymph node (tracheobronchial preferred)
Anaerobic Bacterial Culture ANAER
  • Fresh lung (>2-3 cm in diameter, minimum size)
  • Swab of lung or piece of lung tissue aseptically collected and immediately placed in anaerobic transport media
Bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus PCR PI3
  • Fresh lung
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus PCR BRS
  • Section of fresh lung
Chlamydophila PCR CHPCR
  • Section of fresh lung
Fecal Flotation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces
Histopathology HISTO
  • Formalin-fixed tissue: full set of tissues
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • Section of fresh lung
Selenium, tissue NCRJ
  • Fresh liver

Notes

Limited serology testing is available but paired acute and convalescent serum samples for BRSV SN may be warranted in acute disease episodes.

Ante mortem: Ship chilled except for slides which should be kept at room temperature.

Necropsy: Ship fresh tissue and swab chilled and protect fixed tissue from freezing.

TTW fluid is a superior sample for detection of significant bacterial pathogens causing lower airway disease. Results of nasal or pharyngeal swab cultures must be interpreted with caution as many bacterial organisms may be present as normal commensals in the upper respiratory tract.

If indicated, add Virus Isolation (VI) on fresh tissue, particularly for the detection of caprine adenovirus.

It may be helpful to collect and bank a serum sample for possible acute and convalescent serology.

Caprine Chronic Ill Thrift/Weight Loss Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) PCR BVDPCR
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Fecal Floatation FLOAT
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Fibrinogen (heat-precipitation) FIB-SCH
  • EDTA blood (tube >1/2 full)
Haemonchus Egg Test HEGG
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Hemogram, Large Animal LA CBC
  • (2) air dried blood smears
  • EDTA whole blood in lavender top tube
Johne's AGID JAGID
  • Serum (separated)
Johne's Fecal PCR, Caprine JGPCR
  • Fresh feces in leak-proof container
Large Animal Chemistry LA P
  • Heparinized plasma (separated from a green top tube) or
  • Serum (separated)
Selenium, tissue NCRJ
  • Fresh liver
Selenium, whole blood SEL
  • EDTA whole blood (lavender top tube) or
  • Heparin whole blood (green top tube)
Small Ruminant Lentivirus cELISA SRLEL
  • Serum (separated)
Vitamin E in serum NDIK
  • Serum (separated)

Small Ruminant/Camelid Pinkeye Diagnostic Plan

Tests Performed Test Code Samples Needed
Aerobic Bacterial Culture AER
  • Conjunctival swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)
Chlamydophila PCR CHPCR
  • Conjunctival swab in sterile tube with 0.5ml saline to keep moist (not wet).
Mycoplasma Culture MYCOPL
  • Conjunctival swab in aerobic transport media (Amies without charcoal)

Notes

Ship chilled.